Skip to main content

Full text of "Chronicles of Oklahoma"

See other formats


The 



chronici.es 

of OKLAHOMA 



Autumn, 1944 




Volume XXII 



Number 8 



Published Quarterly by the 
OKLAHOMA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



97U 

C ssf 



OKLAHOMA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
Officers 

ROBERT L. WILLIAMS, President 
THOMAS H. DOYLE, President Emeritus 
EMMA ESTILL-HARBOUR, Vice President 
WILLIAM S. KEY, Vice President 
MiRS. JESSIE R. MOORE, Treasurer 
GRANT FOREMAN, Director of Historical Research 
GOVERNOR ROBERT S. KERR, Ex-Officio 

The Secretary, 
Historical Building, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 

Directors 

Grant Foreman, Director Emeritus for Life, Muskogee 

TERM EXPIRING IN JANUARY, 1945. 
WiLUAM S. Key, Oklahoma City Mrs. John R. Williams, Oklahoma City 

Harry Campbell, Tulsa Baxter Taylor, Oklahoma City 

Robert A. Hefner, Oklahoma City 

TERM EXPIRING IN JANUARY, 1946. 
Thomas A. Edwards, Cordell J. B. Milam, Chelsea 

Emma Estill-Harbour, Edmond Mrs. Jessie E. Moore, Wayne 

James H. Gardner, Tulsa 

TERM EXPIRING IN JANUARY, 1947. 
Charles F. Barrett, Oklahoma City George L. Bowman, Kingfisher 
Jim Biggerstaff, Wagoner Thomas J. Harrison, Pryor 

Mrs. Frank Korn, Oklahoma City 

TERM EXPIRING IN JANUARY, 1948. 

W. J. Peterson, Okmulgee Thomas G. Cook, Buffalo 

Thomas H. Doyle, Oklahoma City Edward C. Lawson, Tulsa 
Mrs. J. Garfield Buell, Tulsa 

TERM EXPIRING IN JANUARY, 1949 
R. L. Williams, Durant Mrs. Blanche Lucas, Ponca City 

E. E. Dale, Norman R. M. Mountcastle, Muskogee 

H. L. MuLDROW, Norman 



Postmaster — Send notice of change of address to Oklahoma Historical So- 
ciety, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

THE CHRONICLES OF OKLAHOMA is published quarterly in spring, 
summer, autumn and winter at 301 W. Harrison, Guthrie, Oklahoma, by 
the Oklahoma Historical Society, with its editorial office located in the 
Historical Society Building, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Correspondence 
concerning contributions and books for review may be sent to the Editor. 

The Oklahoma Historical Society distributes THE CHRONICLES free 
to members. Annual membership dues are one dollar; life membership, 
twenty-five dollars. Membership applications and dues should be sent to 
the Secretary. 

Entered as second class matter January 11, 1924, at the Post Office 
in Oklahoma City, under Act of August 24, 1912. Re-entered as second 
class matter on September 20, 1943, at the Post Office in Guthrie, as re- 
quired by Act of August 24, 1912. 



Printed by Co- Operative Publlsbtng Co., Gutbrle, 0^, 



THE CHRONICLES OF OKLAHOMA 

James W. Moffitt, Editor Muriel H. Wright, Associate Editor 

EDITORIAL AND PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 
The President Harry Campbell 

Emma Estill-Harbour Jim Biggerstaff 

Edward Everett Dale James H. Gardner 

The Secretary 

Volume XXII Number 3 

Autumn 1944 

CONTENTS 

Samuel Long Morley. By Robert L. Williams 232 

Oklahoma War Memorial — -World War II. 

By Muriel H. Wright 236 

James Hugh McBirney. By Fred S. Clinton, M.D., F.A.S.C 254 

Stanley Explores Oklahoma. Annotated by Lona Sliawver 259 

New Hope Seminary. By Carolyn Thomas Foreman 271 

Dissolution op the Wichita Reservation. 

By Berlin B. Chapman _ 300 

Rural School Houses in Early Oklahoma. 

By F. A. Balyeat 315 

Cherokee Occupance in the Oklahoma Ozarks and 

Prairie Plains. By Leslie Hewes _ 324 

The Beginnings of the Oklahoma State Hospital 

Association. By Fred S. Clinton, M.D., F.A.C.S 338 

Notes and Documents _ 354 

Book Reviews 360 

Necrologies 

William Balser Skirvin. By Fred P. Branson 363 

Enloe Vassallo Vernor. By Benj. Martin 365 

Napoleon D. Blackstone. By Benj. Martin 366 

IsER H. Nakdimen. By Muriel H. Wright .367 



Minutes 



370 



SAMUEL LONG MORLEY 
1872-1944 



By Bohert L. Williams 

During his life time, few men in Oklahoma were honored in 
more ways or more often than Samuel Long Morley, his positions 
of responsibility and trust testifying to his broad vision and whole 
hearted support of all that looked toward the development and 
advancement of the new State. 

Samuel Long Morley, son of George and Lydia Butler James 
Morley, was born at Honey Grove, Texas, on September 14, 1872, 
and died on February 14, 1944, interment in Eose Hill Cemetery, 
Oklahoma City. His father, George Morley, was a native of Lincoln, 
Lincolnshire, England, and had two brothers: John Morley, an offi- 
cer in the British navy, and William Morley, an officer in the British 
army who died in Australia; and three sisters, Mary, Ruth, and 
Isabelle. George Morley came to America at the age of twenty years, 
and enlisted and served in the United States Army during the Mex- 
ican War. After the close of the War, he married Lueinda Gray 
in Sebastian County, Arkansas. To this union were born four chil- 
dren, namely three sons, Henry, James, and Thomas ; and one daugh- 
ter, Dora, who died at the age of five years. 

The three sons, Henry, James, and Thomas grew to manhood, 
James dying young and unmarried. Henry Morley and his wife, 
Roxanna Campbell born and reared near Washburn, Arkansas, were 
the parents of Albert, George, Mattie, Samuel Earl, Babb, and Mary. 
Thomas Morley married near Spring Hill (or Barling), Arkansas, 
Manervi Ross who was born in Tennessee. They were the parents 
of Ella, Fred and Eddie (twins), Jim, Will, and Artelee Morley. 
Thomas Morley and his second wife were the parents of Ted and 
Ruth Morley. 

After the death of his first wife, George Morley married his 
second wife, Lydia Butler James, at Port Smith, Arkansas, in about 
1860. She was born near Jacksonville, Tennessee, the daughter of 
John and Sabrina Hays James. The latter had two brothers: Sam 
Hays who owned a large plantation on the Arkansas River, near 
Van Buren, Arkansas, before the War between the States; and Jack- 
son Hays, also a landowner, who lived near Hamburg, Ashley County, 
Arkansas. The children of John and Sabrina Hays James, in addi- 
tion to their daughter, Lydia, were: Gabrial James, who served two 
terms as representative in the State Legislature from Scott County, 
Arkansas; Andrew James, a well known physician of Scott County, 
Arkansas; Samuel James, a farmer and one time mayor of Spiro, 
Oklahoma; Daniel James and Thomas James^ who were killed or 




SAMUEL LONG MORLEY 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2015 



https://archive.org/details/chroniclesofokla2231okla 



Samuel Long Morley 



233 



died during the War between the States; and Susan James Eogers, 
Mary James Minmier, and Narsisus James, all three sisters being 
members of the Methodist Church and of the Eastern Star, and all 
are deceased. All the brothers are deceased and all were Confed- 
erate soldiers and members of the Methodist Church, Gabrial and 
Samuel also being members of the Masonic Lodge. 

George Morley died in 1880, at Washburn, Arkansas, and is 
biTried there. His wife, Lydia Butler James Morley, died and was 
buried in 1899, at Greenwood, Arkansas. On account of disorganized 
conditions in Western Arkansas during the War between the States, 
they had moved to Honey Grove, Texas. To them were born eight 
children, only four of whom lived to be grown : Mary, Euth, Samuel 
(the subject of this article), and Kathryn (Kate). 

Miss Mary Morley, his oldest sister, served with distinction as 
a teacher and supervisor in Indian schools for over thirty-six years, 
and now resides at Eufaula, Oklahoma. Mrs. Euth Morley Hays, 
who resides at Eufaula, and her deceased husband, Frank Hays, 
Avere parents of two children : Mrs. Lela Graham, McAlester, Okla- 
homa; and Ealph Hays, Eichmond, California. The youngest sister, 
Kathryn (Kate) Morley, married Mack Parker (now deceased) and 
they were the parents of one daughter, Kathryn, who is a teacher 
in the High School at Knoxville, Tennessee. 

Samuel Long Morley married Jennie Clark at Winona, Minne- 
sota, on November 12, 1902, the daughter of George W. and Jennie 
A. Loekwood Clark, both of Winona. Mr. and Mrs. Morley were 
the parents of four daughters: Naomi Jennie, born December 15, 
1903, and India Genevieve, born January 25, 1905, both died in 
infancy; the third dauighter, Margaret Morley, is the wife of I. M. 
Parrott ( residents of Tipton, Oklahoma), and they are the parents 
of two daughters, Sarah Jane, born May 1, 1940, and Mary Nell, 
born April 4, 1944; and the fourth daughter, Elizabeth Morley, is 
the wife of Eobert G. Shaw (2307 Guilford Lane, Oklahoma City), 
and they are the parents of one son, James Morley Shaw, born 
August 28, 1942. 



1 The following notes from the records of the Confederate States Army in the 
State of Arkansas -were received from the War Department, Adjutant General's Office, 
Robert M. Dunlop, Brigadier General, Acting The Adjutant General, in a letter 
dated from Washington, D. C., August 26, 1944, addressed to Judge Robert L. 
Williams, President, Oklahoma Historical Society: "The records show that one 
T. P. James, also found T. B. James, but not as Thomas James, a private and ser- 
geant of Company B, 15th (Johnson's) Regiment Arkansas Infantry, Confederate 
States Army, enlisted 17 October 1861, at Camden, Arkansas. The Union Prisoner 
of War records show that he was captured 16 February 1862, at Fort Donelson; 
was imprisoned at Camp Butler, Springfield, Illinois, and died 10 March 1862. The 
name of his widow was recorded at Mary J. James." 



234 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



After entering the University of Arkansas in March, 1889, Sam 
Morley, as he was known to his friends, taught at intervals in the 
district schools at Central and at Pleasant Grove, in Sebastion County, 
Arkansas. A sturdy son, he helped his mother in carrying on the 
work on the family farm of eighty acres in Sebastian County and, 
also, helped his three sisters, all of whom received good educational 
advantages. Leaving the University in January, 1895, Mr. Morley 
assumed the duties the next month as principal teacher of Armstrong 
Academy, Choctaw Nation, serving in this position until appointed 
Superintendent of the Academy in August, 1900. On September 1, 
1903, he was transferred to Jones Academy, as Superintendent, near 
Hartshorne, Choctaw Nation. In July, 1910, the United States Gov- 
ernment took over the Indian schools but he remained in the service 
until September, 1912, when he became President of the First Na- 
tional Bank of Hartshorne. 

On January 11, 1915, by appointment of the Governor and con- 
firmation of the State Senate, Mr. Morley became a member and 
the Secretary of the State Board of Affairs, serving until July 1, 
1916, when the State Board of Affairs appointed him Warden of 
the Oklahoma State Penitentiary at McAlester. He resigned this 
position on July 1, 1919, to take up the duties as President of the 
American National Bank of McAlester. 

During World War I, he was Colonel of the Second Regiment 
of the Oklahoma National Guard which was organized but did not 
go into active service on account of the Armistice. While he had 
been a student of the University of Arkansas, he had taken an active 
participation in military training which later qualified him as an 
officer in the National Guard. 

He was a member of the Masonic Blue Lodge at Hartshorne 
and of the Consistory of McAlester, Oldahoma (32nd degree Mason). 
He was also a member of the Kappa Sigma college fraternity. While 
President of the American National Bank of McAlester, he served 
as officer in various civic organizations at different times. He 
served as President of the Oklahoma State Bankers Association, 
and as President of the State Game and Fish Commission and, also, 
as President of the Isaac Walton League in 1925. He had hunted 
small game when a youth in Arkansas, and after coming to the In- 
dian Territory, he and some of his friends acquired a lodge in a 
canyon of the Gila River in New Mexico where he hunted every 
season for ten years. After retiring as Warden of the penitentiary, 
he once stated that he did not believe any real sportsman would 
willingly commit a felony. 

An outstanding, vital contribution to the development of the 
State was his untiring effort to better living conditions for the 
farmer, especially the cotton farmer, through selling of farm pro- 



Samuel Long Morley 



235 



ducts throvig-h collective marketing organizations. On May 29, 1925, 
he was elected to membership on the directorate of the Oklahoma 
Cotton GroAvers Association, a co-operative organization for the sale 
of cotton by the farmer directly to the spinner, thus securing to the 
farmer himself all the profits from his product. A year later (Aug- 
ust 1, 1926), upon request of the Board of Directors, Mr. Morley 
accepted and became the General Manager of the organization, bring- 
ing to it his wide experience in the business world. As a result of 
the efforts of this association and similar associations throughout 
the South, the collective marketing of cotton by the farmer himself 
became a factor in the cotton business of the world. As General 
Manager of the Oklahoma Cotton Growers Association, Mr. Morley 
became a member of the directorate of the American Cotton Growers 
Exchange, the over-all sales agency for the cotton co-operatives of 
the nation with connections all over the world. 

Alert to every factor that might inure to the benefit of the 
farmers, Mr. Morley joined with other leaders of agriculture through- 
out the nation iu calling the attention of the national government 
to the plight of the farmer group and in seeking assistance for it 
in the same way that industry had been assisted by the national 
government. With the creation of the Federal Farm Board by the 
national government, he urged officials of farm co-operatives through- 
out the nation to join him in urging the Federal Board the necessity 
for a federal agency for the governing of all cotton co-operative 
associations. Meeting with signal success in his efforts, he assisted 
in the preparation of the by-laws and constitution in organizing the 
American Cotton Co-Operative Association, with headquarters at 
New Orleans, Louisiana. It was while he was at New Orleans, Lou- 
isiana, at a meeting of the Association on August 13, 1930, that he 
had a paralytic stroke which continued and disabled him from active 
service the rest of his life. 

As a fine citizen, a devoted and faithful husband and father, 
son and brother, and as a loyal friend and public servant. Honor- 
able Samuel Long Morley, will be remembered in Oklahoma. 



236 Chronicles of Oklahoma 




OKLAHOMA WAR MEMORIAL— WORLD WAR II 

Part IV* 

ROBERT E. LEE ALLSPAUGH, Captain, Corps of Chaplains, U. 
S. Army. Home address : Tulsa, Tulsa County. Mrs. Robert E. 
Allspaugh, Wife, 1430 South Gary Place, Tulsa 4. Born July 8, 
1897. Enlisted January, 1942. Decoration: Order of the Purple 
Heart awarded posthumously. In "World War I, served with Amer- 
ican Expeditionary Forces thirteen months, rising to rank of staff 
sergeant Medical Corps. Member East Oklahoma Conference of the 
Methodist Chu^rch, having served many pastorates in Oklahoma, 
including Rose Hill Methodist Church, Tulsa. Served as teacher 
and director religioxTS educational activities, and was member of the 
International Council of Religious Education. Self made as a youth, 
he early chose the ministry as his life's work, continuing his edu- 
cation in his mature years : graduated High School, Tulsa ; attended 
University of Tulsa; graduated Northeastern Oklahoma A. & M. 
College (Miami) and Northwestern University (Evanston, Illinois) ; 
received Bachelor of Divinity Degree Garrett Biblical Institute in 
1931 (Evanston). Training in armed forces, graduated with honors 
from Chaplain School, Harvard University. Overseas duty begin- 
ning August, 1943, with tank, engineer, and infantry hospital corps. 
Memorial services Boston Avenue Church, Tulsa. Died January 16, 
1944, in action at Cassino, in Italy. 

JOHN M. ARAMBULA, Private, U. S. Army. Home address : Enid, 
Garfield County. Frank Arambula, Father, Enid. Born January 

* The first list of brief biographies of Oklahomans who have died in the service 
in the present World War was published as Part I of the "Oklahoma War Mem- 
orial—World War 11" in The Chronicles, XXII (December, 1943), No. 4. Parts II 
and III were published in the spring and the summer numbers of 1944, respectively. 
Other lists of biographies for the War Memorial will be published in future issues 
of this quarterly magazine. — Muriel H. Wright. 



Oklahoma War Memorial — World War II 



237 



3, 1923. Enlisted March, 1943. Educated Enid schools. Died No- 
vember 16, 1943, in North African area. 

FRANK A. BENNETT, Sergeant, U. S. Army. Home address: 
Holdenville, Hughes County. Mrs. Lula Bennett, Mother, Rt. 5, 
Holdenville. Born December 2, 1922. Enlisted September, 1940. 
Decoration: Order of the Purple Heart. Died November 23, 1943, 
in Italy. 

JOHN W. BENNETT, Private, First Class, U. S. Army. Home ad- 
dress: Fairfax, Osage County. Geo. W. Bennett, Father, Fairfax. 
Born October 26, 1916. Enlisted September 23, 1940. Remarks: 
"A very studious and intelligent young man, liked by all who knew 
him." Died October 15, 1943, in Italy. 

ARNOLD F. BETTGE, Sergeant, U. S. Army Air Corps. Home 
address : Lawton, Comanche County. Mrs. K. E. Schmidt, Sister, 
San Bernardino, California. Born September 24, 1918. Enlisted 
October 31, 1941. Decoration: Order of the Purple Heart. Died 
November 12, 1942, Western European area. 

CECIL EUGENE BLAKLEY, Ensign, U. S. Naval Air Corps Re- 
serve. Home address : Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County. Mrs. 
Tom Blakley, Mother, 3300 South Shartel, Oldahoma City. Born 
November 29, 1919. Enlisted April 25, 1941. Saw service in Alaska 
and Aleutian Islands. Died December 3, 1942, in airplane crash, 
San Diego, California. 

RALPH BLACKBURN, Staff Sergeant, U. S. Army. Home ad- 
dress : Gushing, Payne County. Mrs. Virginia Lee Blackburn, "Wife, 
406 East Maple, Cushing. Born September 3, 1918. Enlisted Jan- 
uary 12, 1941. Decoration : Order of the Purple Heart. Served with 
the 45th Division in the invasion of Italy. Died September 11, 1943, 
North African area. 

BILLY BOLTON, Private, First Class, U. S. Army. Home ad- 
dress: Muskogee, Muskogee County. Mrs. Gladys Bolton, Mother, 
2201/2 North 3rd, Muskogee. Born November 28, 1922. Enlisted 
September 16, 1940. Oklahoma champion boxer American Athletic 
Union. Member Oklahoma National Guard, enlisted November 15, 
1939. Served with 45th Division. Died July 14, 1943, in Sicily. 

JOHN E. BONE, Sergeant, U. S. Army. Home address : Rubottom, 
Love County. Mrs. Almetia I. Bone, Wife, Rubottom. Born Feb- 
ruary 18, 1919. Enlisted November 18, 1941. Died September 13, 
1943, in Italy. 

JAMES H. BOT\TjES, Private, U. S. Army. Home address: Cordell, 
Washita County. James T. Bowles, Father, Rt. 2, Elk City, Okla- 
homa. Born June 5, 1922. Enlisted June 10, 1942. Served in 
Armored Command Amphibious Forces. Died February 4, 1943, Ft. 
Story, Virginia. 



238 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



MELVIN BOWLES, Sergeant, U. S. Army. Home address : Tonk- 
awa, Kay County. Mrs. Lillie P. Ward, Mother, 209 South 12th St., 
Tonkawa. Born May 11, 1919. Enlisted February 14, 1940. Dec- 
oration : Order of the Purple Heart. Died September 13, 1943, in 
North African area. 

TRAVIS V. BOWLING, Staff Sergeant, U. S. Army Air Corps. 
Home address : Claremore, Rogers County. Mr. and Mrs. Arthur 
W. Bowling, Parents, Rt. 4, Claremore. Born May 4, 1923. En- 
listed November 27, 1942. Served as Tail Gunner on B-24 Liberator. 
Died August 27, 1943, in airplane crash, routine training mission, 
side of Cheyenne Mountain, Pueblo, Colorado. 

PAUL L. BOX, Staff Sergeant, U. S. Army Air Corps. Home ad- 
dress : Cleveland, Pawnee County. Mr. and Mrs. Linah W. Box, 
Parents, Cleveland. Born November 11, 1915. Enlisted December 
18, 1941. Served as airplane mechanic. Upon call at Fort Bragg, 
North Carolina, only one of his squadron who volunteered to make 
an ascent in a glider. Died October 29, 1943, Asiatic Theatre, 
China-India area. 

HARRY EUGENE BRADLY, Aviation Cadet, U. S. Army Air 
Corps. Home address : El Reno, Canadian County. Mrs. M. B. Cope, 
Aunt, El Reno. Born December 13, 1922. Enlisted March 26, 1942. 
A devout Christian. Received diploma and wings as pilot January 
25, 1943. Died January 25, 1943, in airplane crash, Madagorda 
Island, Texas. 

LESLIE P. BRASEL, First Lieutenant, U. S. Army. Home address : 
Drumright, Creek County. Mrs. Ovis L. Brasel, Wife, 131 West 
Main, Ada, Oklahoma. Born November 7, 1915. Enlisted January 
29, 1942. Commissioned May, 1938. Decoration : Order of the Purple 
Heart. Served in Field Artillery, Reconnaissance Battalion. Died 
March 5, 1943, in North Africa. 

BRUCE D. BRIDWELL, Corporal, U. S. Army. Home address: 
Lawton, Comanche County. Mr. and Mrs. Chas. Bridwell, Parents, 
1410 I Street, Lawton. Born March 16, 1917. Enlisted September 
15, 1941. Died February 7, 1943, seventh day out in bitter winter 
storm during training trip, crevasse of Valdez Glacier, famous trail 
to the gold camps of 1898 in Alaska. 

DONALD RAYMOND BRIED, First Lieutenant, U. S. Naval Air 
Corps. Home address : Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County. Mrs. Theo- 
dore J. Bried, Mother, 240 N. W. 34th St., Oklahoma City. Born 
April 16, 1916. Graduated U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, 1940. 
Joined Naval Air Corps March, 1942. Graduated Classen High School, 
Oklahoma City, 1934. Attended University of Oklahoma one year, 
member of University Band, 1934-35. Following graduation from 
Naval Academy, served as ensign much of the time in foreign waters. 



Oklahoma War Memorial — World War II 



239 



Died Febniary 24, 1943, in airplane crash, Jacksonville, Florida. 
Burial Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia. 

JOE L. BUGG, Private, First Class, U. S. Army. Home address: 
Crescent, Logan County. Mr. and Mrs. Hewitt C. Bugg, Parents, 
Crescent. Born July 31, 1918. Enlisted September 24, 1940. Served 
with 45th Division. His captain stated that he could always point 
to him with pride as one of the best men under his command. Died 
April 4, 1941. 

JULIAN A. BURROW, Private, U. S. Army. Home address : Cam- 
eron, Le Flore County. Mrs. Mary Burrow, Wife, Williams, Okla- 
homa. Born August 1, 1917. Enlisted January 12, 1941. Decor- 
ation : Order of the Purple Heart. Died September 26, 1943, in 
Italy. 

MARVIN H. BRYANT, JR., Second Lieutenant, U. S. Army Air 
Corps. Home address : Hugo, Choctaw County. Mrs. Maude Bryant, 
Mother, 709 Bast Jackson St., Hugo. Born December 22, 1919. En- 
listed August 21, 1941. Decorations : Air Medal ; Order of the Purple 
Heart. Attended University of Oklahoma 1937-40. Served as 
Bombardier and Navigator. Died January 18, 1943, on a bomb- 
ing mission over Kiska, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. 

RICHARD M. CAMPBELL, Staff Sergeant, U. S. Army Air Corps. 
Home address : Calera, Bryan County. I. R. Campbell, Father, 
Calera. Born October 6, 1921. Enlisted July 8, 1942. Awarded 
citation of honor. Former basket ball and track star. Died May 3, 
1943, Mt. Howe, Idaho. 

MORRIS ALLEN CARTER, Staff Sergeant, U. S. Army. Home 
address : Apache, Caddo County. Mr. and Mrs. Ross Carter, Parents, 
207 South Magnolia, Luling, Texas. Born May 16, 1918. Enlisted 
November 15, 1940. Decoration: Order of the Purple Heart. Died 
September 9, 1943, Salerno, Italy. 

THOMAS P. CARTER, Private, First Class, U. S. Marine Corps. 
Home address : Avery, Lincoln County. Mr. and Mrs. Charlie Carter, 
Parents, Rt. 2, Avery. Born August 7, 1922. Enlisted May 21, 1942. 
Decoration : Order of the Purple Heart. Sauk and Fox Indian de- 
scent. Outstanding athlete. Gradiiated Gushing High School, Gush- 
ing, Oklahoma, May 15, 1942. Died January 26, 1943, in action, 
Solomon Islands. 

LYLE THOMAS CHAPMAN, Seaman, First Glass, U. S. Coast 
Guard. Home address: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Gordon B. 
Chapman, Father, 1533 S.W. 28th St., Oklahoma City. Born Jan- 
uary 26, 1919. Enlisted July 17, 1941. Decoration: Order of the 
Purple Heart. Member of Church of Christ. Died June 13, 1943, 
North Atlantic. 



240 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



EGBERT KENNETH CHESLEY, Fireman, First Class, U. S. Navy. 
Home address : Isabella, Major County. Mrs. Maggie N. Chesley, 
Mother, Pairview, Oldahoma. Born March 9, 1923. Enlisted Jan- 
uary 13, 1941. Died October 24, 1942, in performance of duty, 
San Francisco, California. 

J. W. CHILDEES, Staff Sergeant, U. S. Army Air Corps. Home 
address : Okmulgee, Okmulgee County. Mrs. Myrtle Childers, 
Mother, 616 West 12th St., Okmulgee. Born October 6, 1920. En- 
listed October 1, 1939. Decorations: Order of the Purple Heart; 
Distinguished Flying Cross. Graduated High School, Bogota, Texas, 
May, 1939 ; member All State Football Team. Graduated Army Tech- 
nician School, Rantoul, Illinois, December 6, 1941. Died September 
29, 1942, off Guadalcanal, Southwest Pacific. 

ALBERT R. CHRISTIAN, Corporal, U. S. Army. Home address: 
Vinita, Craig County. Mrs. Cornelia E. Christian, Mother, Rt. 2, 
Vinita. Born October 13, 1914. Enlisted January 7, 1941. Dec- 
oration: Order of the Purple Heart awarded posthumously. Served 
as Machine Gunner with 45th Division. Died November 7, 1943, 
in action in Italy. 

RECTOR COOKINGS, Sergeant, U. S. Army Air Corps. Home 
address: Cleveland, Pawnee County. Mrs. A. E. Shepard, Mother, 
Cleveland. Born May 31, 1918. Enlisted December 4, 1941. Died 
December 8, 1943, in bomber crash (B-24) near Marrakeeh, French 
Morocco, en route to England. 

DELPARDE R. COLE, Sergeant, TJ. S. Army. Home address: 
Stuart, Hughes County. Lewis D. Cole, Father, Rt. 1, Stuart. Born 
February 27, 1908. Enlisted January 14, 1940. Decoration : Order 
of the Purple Heart. "Wounded September 9, 1943. Died Septem- 
ber 11, 1943, North African area. 

ERNEST S. COLE, Captain, U. S. Army. Home address: Atoka, 
Atoka County. Mrs. Ernest S. Cole, Wife, 604 W. Adams, Purcell, 
Oklahoma. Born January 12, 1908. Enlisted April, 1942. Served 
with Ordnance Regiment. Died October 27, 1943, in French Mor- 
occo. 

WARREN G. COLLINS, Captain, U. S. Army Air Corps. Home 
address : Ringling, J eff erson County. A. G. Collins, Father, Ring- 
ling. Birth July 7, 1920. Enlisted October 1, 1941. Died Decem- 
ber 12, 1943, airplane crash in fog. El Paso, Texas. 

DAVID DEHAVEN COMLY, Private, Paratroop Division, U. S. 
Army Air Corps. Home address : Tulsa, Tulsa County. Mrs. A. A. 
Carrigan, Mother, 3012 East 8th St., Tulsa. Born September 27, 
1922. Enlisted March 13, 1942. Decoration: Order of the Purple 
Heart awarded posthumously. Received wings as Paratrooper, Ft. 
Benning, Georgia. Shipped for overseas' duty April, 1943, as part 



Oklahoma War Memorial — JForld War II 



241 



of Airborne Division. Landed in North Africa; took part in the 
invasion of Sicily, and was only one of 49 who survived when 1,000 
paratroopers were dropped behind the German line. Later when 
passing through Sicily with 7th Army, he and a companion para- 
trooper captured 46 Italian prisoners. Hospitalized with malaria, 
September, 1943, North Africa. Died October 6, 1943, in action 
and buried on Italian soil. 

JOHN T. COMPTON, Captain, U. S. Army. Home address: Tulsa, 
Tulsa County. Mrs. Johnnie Marie Campton, Wife, 4702 South 28 
W. Ave., Tulsa. Born May 30, 1918. Enlisted September 16, 1940. 
Decoration : Order of the Purple Heart awarded posthumously. Mem- 
ber of Oklahoma National Guard, enlisted June 4, 1934. Served 
with the 45th Division. Died November 8, 1943, in Italy. 

CHARLES E. COZBY, Sergeant, U. S. Army. Home address: Okla- 
homa City, Oklahoma County. Mrs. C. E. Cozby, Wife, 1137 N. E. 
10th St., Oklahoma City. Born April 16, 1919. Enlisted Septem- 
ber 20, 1940. Of Chickasaw Indian descent, great-grandson of 
Cyrus Harris, first Governor of the Chickasaw Nation. Subsequent 
to one year's service in Army, volunteered for State Detachment 
National Guard, December 10, 1941 ; regularly enlisted second time 
in U. S. Army January 4, 1942. Served in Ordnance Company, 
45th Division. Died October 15, 1943, in action, in Italy. 

OTIIO COX, Private, U. S. Army. Home address: Lookeba, Caddo 
County. Mrs. Willie Lee Cox, Mother, Rt. 2, Lookeba. Born April 
30, 1915. Enlisted August 27, 1941. Served with Engineer Regi- 
ment. Died July 12, 1943, Elgin Field, Florida. 

CECIL W. CRABTREE, Private, U. S. Army. Home address: 
Grandfield, Tillman County. R. R. Crabtree, Father, Grandfield. 
Born May 28, 1923. Enlisted September 13, 1939. Served in Tank 
Destroyer Division. Died October 22, 1942, Army and Navy Hos- 
pital, Hot Springs, Arkansas. 

JOHN H. CROWDER, Technical Sergeant, U. S. Army Air Corps. 
Home address : Bartlesville, Washington County. Walter Crowder, 
Brother, 401 South Seminole, Bartlesville. Born September 1, 1911. 
Enlisted December 6, 1940. Decoration : Air Medal for heroic serv- 
ice in action in the Aleutian Islands August, 1942. Died January 
18, 1943, in Aleutian Islands. 

LOUIS E. CURRY, Second Lieutenant, U. S. Marine Corps. Home 
address: Pryor, Mayes County. Mrs. Elpha J. Curry, Wife, 204 
North Taylor, Pryor. Born March 11, 1917. Enlisted February 2, 
1937. Won highest rank as enlisted man, then recommended for 
and entered Officer Candidate Training School and received his 
commission. Each man in his battalion received letter of commen- 
dation from the Commanding Officer, for bravery on Guadalcanal. 
Died November 21, 1943, Southwest Pacific. 



242 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



BILLY FLOYD DAILEY, Corporal, U. S. Army. Home address: 
Colbert, Bryan County. Mrs. Fannie Y. Crabtree, Grandmother, 
Colbert. Born February 11, 1924. Enlisted December, 1941. First 
enlisted in the Army in September, 1940, and served a year. Served 
with 45th. Division second enlistment. i)ied November 20, 1943, in 
Italy. 

CARL SHEPARD DALBEY, JR., Senior Lieutenant, Radio Oper- 
ator Chief, U. S. Merchant Marine. Home address: Oklahoma City, 
Oklahoma County. Mrs. Carl S. Dalbey, Sr., Mother, 900 N. W. 
42nd St., Oklahoma City. Born October 22, 1921. Enlisted Octo- 
ber 19, 1940. Decoration: Mariner's Medal awarded posthumously. 
As a tribute to his courage and honoring his memory posthumously 
were the Red Cross of Boston program (August, 1943), the Fred 
Waring Radio Program (October, 1943), and the dedication of a 
room to his name at the Seaman's Church Institute of New York 
City. First passed Government test for amateur radio license at the 
age of twelve years, subsequently advancing through different phases 
of radio to "Ham" operator, serving as announcer for local stations 
Oklahoma City, Enid, and Ponca City. At the age of twenty years, 
accepted as student in the Radio School, Gallup Island, Boston com- 
pleting the ten month's course in four months due to previous ex- 
perience. Shipped coast-wise four months. Sailed June, 1942, as 
Chief Radio Operator on merchant ship which within ten days was 
torpedoed and sunk, Dalbey and forty-seven others drifting thirty- 
two days in open life boat finally arriving at an island where they 
were rescued by Betty Carstairs, English sportswoman, and hospital- 
ized at Nassau, Bahama Islands. Sailing October, 1942, ship crashed 
at sea, crew landing at Halifax, Nova Scotia. Sailing December 21, 
1942, made it with cargo to England, through storms and submarine 
infested waters; upon return was honored at White House and by 
Government officials at Washington, D. C. Sailed March 17, 1943, 
on a neAv "Liberty Ship." Died March 29, 1943, on duty on ship 
torpedoed and sunk in the Battle of the Atlantic. 

HOMER DAVIS, Corporal, U. S. Army. Home address : Benning- 
ton, Bryan County. Tom Davis, Father, 509 W. Miss., Durant. Born 
February 22, 1917. Enlisted August 20, 1941. Served as Tank 
Gunner, Armored Regiment. Died November 28, 1942, in North 
Africa. 

RUSSELL R. DAVIS, Second Lieutenant, U. S. Army Air Corps. 
Home address : Owasso, Tulsa County. Mrs. Laura Davis, Mother, 
Rt. 1, Owasso. Born July 15, 1919. Enlisted September 15, 1940, 
served one year, re-enlisted January 2, 1942. Graduated and re- 
ceived wings March 20, 1943, at Moore's Field, Mission, Texas. Died 
November 2, 1943, Eagle Pass, Texas. 

WOODROW W. DEEL, Second Lieutenant, U. S. Army. Home 
address: Bokchito, Bryan County. D. T. Deel, Father, Bokchito. 



Oklahoma War Memorial — IVorld War II 



243 



Born January 18, 1916. Enlisted September 16, 1940. Decoration: 
Order of the Purple Heart. Served with 45th Division. Died Octo- 
ber 12, 1943, in Italy. 

FREDERICK DEEM, Second Mate, U. S. Merchant Marine. Home 
address: Eddy, Kay County. Mrs. Anna Brown, Aunt, 1207 W. 
Mansur, Guthrie, Oklahoma. Born May 16, 1904. Served on a com- 
mercial freighter which was taken over into the Merchant Marine 
in April, 1942. Died May 16, 1942, on duty when the ship was 
bombed in the Caribbean Sea. 

CHARLIE J. DEUVALL, Private, U. S. Army. Home address: 
Vian, Sequoyah County. Mrs. Sarah Deuvall, Mother, Rt. 1, Vian. 
Born December 11, 1920. Enlisted January 10, 1942. Died Novem- 
ber 24, 1943, in Italy. 

MORVAN DICK, Water Tender, Second Class, U. S. Navy. Home 
address: Kaw, Kay County. Mrs. 0. S. Dick, Mother, Kaw. Born 
March 13, 1921. Enlisted September 8, 1939. Decorations: Amer- 
ican Defense Medal ; Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal. Graduated 
High School, Kaw, Oklahoma, 1939. Served with the American forces 
at Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941. Awarded medal for efficiency 
and medal for four years good conduct. Served with Engineer Force, 
U. S. S. Henley, recently sunk. Died October 3, 1943, on duty near 
New Guinea, Southwest Pacific. 

ROBERT L. DICKENSON, Staff Sergeant, U. S. Army Air Corps. 
Home address : Tulsa, Tulsa County. W. 0. Dickenson, Father, 1416 
S. Newport, Tulsa. Born July 19, 1913. Enlisted June 15, 1942. 
Received Citation of Honor. Served with Observation Squadron. 
Died May 20, 1943, in airplane crash during maneuvers, near Nash- 
ville, Tennessee. 

JOHN W. DICKEY, Private, U. S. Army Air Corps. Home address : 
Bethany, Oklahoma County. Mrs. Sallie A. Dickey, Mother, 403 N. 
Marshall Drive, Midwest City Branch, Oklahoma City 10. Born July 
7, 1918. Enlisted January 11, 1943. Completed schooling at Cres- 
cent, Oklahoma. Trained at Fort Sill, Sheppard Field, and Harl- 
ingen Field, Texas. AVon wings as Aerial Gunner March 22, 1943. 
Died March 22, 1943, in line of duty, Harlingen, Texas. 

LLOYD GEORGE DICKSON, Sergeant, U. S. Army Air Corps. 
Home addi-ess : Barnsdall, Osage County. Mrs. 0. K. Dickson, 
Mother, Barnsdall. Born June 28, 1922. Enlisted September 21, 
1942. Died February 12, 1943, Roswell, New Mexico. 

GRAHAM W. DIGGS,, JR., Technical Sergeant, U. S. Army Air 
Corps. Home address : Wetumka, Hughes County. Mrs. Mamie H. 
Diggs, Mother, Wetumka. Born March 21, 1921. Enlisted June 29, 
1942. Decorations : Order of the Purple Heart ; Air Medal. Grad- 
uated Wetumka High School, 1938. Graduated University of Okla- 



244 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



lioma, 1942. Graduated from Gunnery School and received wings, 
Harlingen Field, Texas, August 18, 1942. Served as Top Turret 
Gunner on B-17 in England. Died July 29, 1943, over Kiel, Ger- 
many. , 

GEORGE DILLAHUNTY, Private, First Class, U. S. Army Air 
Corps. Home address : Granite, Greer County. Mr. and Mrs. W. A. 
Dillahunty, Parents, Rt. 1, Granite. Born December 30, 1916. En- 
listed November 21, 1941. Received diplomas from Airplane Me- 
chanical and Propeller Specialist School, Chanute Field, Illinois. 
Died May 25, 1943, Camp Maxey, Texas. 

RUSSELL R. DOUGHERTY, Second Lieutenant, U. S. Army Air 
Corps. Home address: Edmond, Oklahoma County. Mrs. Martha 
Dougherty, Mother, 30 East Clegern, Edmond. Born August 7, 1918. 
Enlisted February 25, 1941. Decorations: Air Medal; Oak Leaf 
Cluster; Order of the Purple Heart. Died April 19, 1943, in Sol- 
omon Islands. 

HENRY A. DRAKE, Corporal, U. S. Coast Guard. Home address: 
Boyd, Beaver County. Mr. and Mrs. Glen W. Drake, Parents, Box 
588, Clovis, New Mexico. Born September 29, 1919. Enlisted De- 
cember 2, 1940. Died June 30, 1943, Japanese Prison Camp, Phil- 
ippine Islands. 

WAYNE E. DRAKE, Private, U. S. Army. Home address: Tulsa, 
Tulsa County. Mrs. Edith Drake, Mother, 1428 East Admiral Place, 
Tulsa. Born February 18, 1922. Enlisted March 12, 1941. Died 
September 7, 1943, Japanese Prison Camp, Philippine Islands. 

LEONARD A. DUGGAN, Seaman, First Class, U. S. Naval Air 
Corps. Home address : Laverne, Harper County. Mrs. A. G. Dug- 
gan, Mother, Laverne. Born April 1, 1924. Enlisted December 7, 
1942. Served as Radio Gunner. Died October 7, 1943, in airplane 
crash routine flight, Jacksonville, Florida. 

ALONZO H. DUKE, JR., Private, U. S. Army. Home address: 
Ardmore, Carter County. Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Duke, Parents, 918 
B N.W., Ardmore. Born March 25, 1917. Enlisted September 16, 
1940. Decoration : Order of the Purple Heart. Graduated Ardmore 
High School. Enlisted in Oklahoma National Guard September 9, 
1940. Wounded September, 1943. Died November 26, 1943, in Italy. 

EMIT M. DUNN, Corporal, U. S. Army. Home address: Sayre, 
Beckham County. Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Dunn, Parents, Sayre. Born 
January 28, 1914. Enlisted June 8, 1942. Served in Engineer Corps. 
Trained at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, and Fort Bragg, North 
Carolina. Died March 13, 1943, in North Africa. 

LEO E. DUN A WAY, Second Lieutenant, U. S. Army Air Corps. 
Home address: Jones, Oklahoma County. Mr. and Mrs. F. C. Dun- 



Oklahoma War Memorial — World War II 



245 



away, Parents, Jones. Born July 9, 1919. Enlisted March, 1942. 
Graduated Jones High School; attended Oklahoma A. & M. College, 
Stillwater, two years. Member Kappa Sigma Fraternity. Advanced 
training at Pampa and Pyote, Texas, and Dyersburg, Tennessee. 
Served as Co-Pilot on B-17. Died November 13, 1943, Chipping 
"Warden, England. 

CHAELES DUSHANE, Second Lieutenant, U. S. Army. Home 
address: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County. Mrs. Dorothy lone 
Dushane, Wife, 2140 Eubanks, Oklahoma City. Born December 25, 
1919. Enlisted September 22, 1941. Decorations: Distinguished 
Ser-^aee Cross; Order of the Purple Heart. Died November 8, 1942, 
in North African invasion. 

MARSHALL E. DYCHE, Corporal, U. S. Army Air Corps. Home 
address: Carrier, Garfield County. Mrs. Ralph Dyche, Mother, 
Carrier. Born December 14, 1921. Enlisted August 29, 1942. Grad- 
uated Carrier High School and Enid Business College, Enid, Olda- 
homa. Died October 29, 1943, in Sicily. 

ALFRED EDWARDS, Private, First Class, U. S. Marine Corps. 
Home address : Stillwell, Adair County. Mrs. May Edwards, Mother, 
Rt. 4, Stillwell. Born October 17, 1910. Enlisted January 7, 1942. 
Died November 20, 1943, at Tarawa, Gilbert Islands, Southwest 
Pacific. 

CLAUDE TURNER EICHOR, First Lieutenant, Field Artillery, 
U. S. Army. Home address: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County. 
Mrs. C .C. Eichor, Mother, 2509 N.W. 21st St., Oldahoma City. 
Born April 15, 1918. Enlisted March 1, 1941. Decoration: Order 
of the Purple Heart awarded posthumously. Attended Central High 
School, Oklahoma City. Received commission as Second Lieutenant 
Officers' Training School, Fort Sill, Oklahoma, August 18, 1942. 
Sailed for overseas duty October, 1942. Promoted to First Lieu- 
tenant April, 1943. Served in the campaigns of Africa, Sicily, and 
Italy. Died December 7, 1943, in action on Mt. Pantane, Italy. 

PARKER E. EVERETT, Second Lieutenant, U. S. Army Air Corps. 
Home address : Elk City, Beckham County. Mrs. Alice Dean, Sister, 
510 N. Elmira, San Antonio, Texas. Born May 28, 1914. Enlisted 
May 27, 1941. Attended public schools Clinton and Weatherford, 
Oklahoma. Graduated SoutliAvestern Institute of Technology (B.A.), 
Weatherford, 1936. Widely known in Western Oklahoma college 
sports. Member Episcopal Church. Received wings and commission 
January 9, 1942. Served as Flight Commander, Mapping Squadron, 
Spokane, Washington. Died July 7, 1943, airplane crash, Sioux 
City, Iowa. I 

LEONARD EUGENE FASHOLTZ, Aviation Cadet, U. S. Army 
Air Corps. Home address: Nowata, Nowata County. Charles 



246 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



Fasholtz, Father, 302 South Locust, Nowata. Born February 5, 
1915. Enlisted September 25, 1941. First enlisted in IT. S. Army, 
Field Artillery, February 3, 1941. Trained as Navigator. Wings 
awarded posthumously. Died March 13, 1942, airplane crash, Mather 
Field, Sacramento, California. 

CLYDE FRAZIER, JR., Second Lieutenant, U. S. Army Air Corps. 
Home address : Hominy, Osage County. Clyde M. Frazier, Sr., 
Father, Hominy. Born February 29, 1920. Enlisted 1940 (Isegan 
primary training October, 1940). Graduated Hominy High School. 
Attended Oklahoma Baptist University, Shawnee, two and one-half 
years; member of All State College Football team during second 
year. Member of First Baptist Church, Hominy. Received wings 
and commission, Kelly Field, San Antonio, Texas, May 29, 1941. 
Served as Pilot on B-17 Flying Fortress and on A-20-A, light at- 
tack bomber. Stationed at Hickam Field at time of attack on Pearl 
Harbor December 7, 1941. Died May 5, 1942, in airplane crash, 
Hickam Field, Territory of Hawaii. 

CARL FUNKHOUSBR, Staff Sergeant, U. S. Army Air Corps. 
Home address : Skedee, Pawnee County. Mrs. Edna Funkhouser, 
Mother, Skedee. Born June 7, 1910. Enlisted January, 1938. First 
enlisted in the U. S. Army August 1, 1933, and served in First Field 
Artillery, Fort Sill, Oklahoma, until he enlisted in the Air Corps. 
Served in the Philippine Islands two years. Died January 14, 1942, 
near Boise, Idaho. 

NATHAN MacCLAIN GARRISON, Private, First Class, U. S. 
Army. Home address : Alva, Woods County. Mrs. Irene S. Garri- 
son, Mother, 703 Fourth St., Alva. Born December 10, 1918. En- 
listed September 16, 1940. Decoration : Order of the Purple Heart 
awarded posthumously. Member Oklahoma National Guard, enlisted 
October 1, 1939. Attended Horace Mann High School, Northwestern 
State College, Alva. With Alva Daily Record several years before 
mobilization. Served with 45th Division. Died November 9, 1943, 
in action in Italy. 

CLAIRE E. GOLDTRAP, Corporal, U. S. Marine Corps. Home 
address: Hobart, Kiowa County. Mrs. Lola Blanche Goldtrap, 
Mother, Rt. 2, Hobart. Born April 10, 1922. Enlisted June 15, 
1940. Sailed for overseas duty July, 1941. Died November 20, 
1943, South Pacific. 

GERALD GRAY, Second Lieutenant, U. S. Army Air Corps. Home 
address: Tonkawa, Kay County. Mrs. B. F. Gray, Mother, Tonk- 
awa. Born April 4, 1919. Enlisted October 15, 1940. Flight In- 
structor. Died May 3, 1942, Kaye Field, Columbus, Mississippi. 

ERNEST ELMO GUNTER, Corporal, Seaforth Highlanders, Cana- 
dian Army. Home address : Hammon, Roger Mills County. Wiley 



Oklahoma War Memorial — World War II 



247 



Guuter, Father, Hammon. Bom October 13, 1913. Enlisted Feb- 
ruary 15, 1942, at Nelson, Canada. Attended University of Okla- 
homa 1933-34. Fought in fourteen major battles in Africa, Sicily, 
and Italy. Wounded twice. Died December 20, 1943, in action in 
Italy. 

JOSEPH CECIL HAAS, Seaman, Second Class, U. S. Navy. Home 
address: Carnegie, Caddo County. Mrs. Ethel Radford, Mother, 
Carnegie. Born July 11, 1920. Enlisted May 31, 1942. Served as 
Gunner's Mate. Died February 20, 1943, Naval Hospital, San Diego, 
California. 

EDGAR NOLAN HALL, Sergeant, U. S. Army Air Corps. Home 
address: Fairview, Major County. A. 0. Manning, Poster Father, 
Fairview. Born September 22, i922. Enlisted September 13, 1940. 
Served as Mechanic. Died June 26, 1942, Army Air Field, Waco, 
Texas. 

JOHN G. HALL, Second Lieutenant, U. S. Air Corps. Home ad- 
dress: Tulsa, Tulsa County. Mrs. G. H. Hall, Mother, 2235 E. 24th 
St., Tulsa. Born February 16, 1918. Enlisted March 24, 1942. Re- 
ceived wings and commission Aloe Field, Texas, February 16, 1943. 
Died May 25, 1943, near Natchez, Mississippi. 

HAROLD J. HAMBLIN, Private, First Class, U. S. Army. Home 
address : Covington, Garfield County. Mrs. Lydia M. Hamblin, 
Mother, Covington. Born April 17, 1914. Enlisted January, 1942. 
Died November 26, 1942, in action Southwest Pacific. 

WALTER E. HANCE, First Lieutenant, U. S. Army Air Corps. 
Home address: Picher, Ottawa County. Albert Hance, Father, 601 
North Netta St., Picher. Born September 25, 1911. Enlisted March 
18, 1931. Died September 20, 1942, New Delhi, India. 

MELVIN H. HANCEFORD, Corporal, U. S. Army. Home address : 
Seminole, Seminole County. Howard Hanceford, Father, Rt. 3, 
Seminole. Born February 24, 1918. Enlisted February 17, 1941. 
Decoration : Order of the Purple Heart. Graduated Prairie Valley 
High School, Seminole County, 1938. Employee of American Potash 
& Chemical Company, Trona, California. Served with the 45th Di- 
vision. Sailed for overseas duty in May, 1943. Died September 11, 
1943, in action in the Battle of Salerno, Italy. 

ALEX HARDRIDGE, Private, U. S.' Army. Home address, Kelly- 
ville. Creek County. Mrs. Betsy Hardridge, Mother, Rt. 1, Kelly- 
ville. Born December 7, 1920. Enlisted January 17, 1941. Decor- 
ation : Order of the Purple Heart. Grandson of Shawnee Hardridge, 
Peace Officer of the U. S. Indian Police force, 1883-85, first officer 
in City of Tulsa. Died July 11, 1943, in Sicily. 



248 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



ALBERT HARDGRAVES, Private, U. S. Army. Home address: 
Bixby, Tulsa County. Mrs. Mildred Hardgraves, Wife, Bixby. Born 
September 28, 1917. Enlisted June 5, 1942. Served with Engineer 
Corps. Died August 12, 1943, auto accident, near Sapulpa, Okla- 
homa, en route home on furlough. 

DENTON C. HARGROVE, Technician, Fifth Grade, U. S. Army. 
Home address : Miami, Ottawa County. Mr. and Mrs. Clyde Har- 
grove, Parents, 217 G S.E., Miami. Born October 2, 1917. Enlisted 
January 8, 1941. Decorations : Order of the Purple Heart ; Silver 
Star. Served in Medical Detachment, 45th Division. During battle 
in Sicily crossed a field under enemy fire to care for a wounded 
comrade. Died November 8, 1943, somewhere in Italy. 

CLIFFORD E. HARE, Private, U. S. Army. Home address : Cher- 
okee, Alfalfa County. Mr. and Mrs. James Hare, Parents, 380 Na- 
tional Ave., Chula Vista, California. Born January 11, 1918. En- 
listed September, 1940. Decoration: Order of the Purple Heart. 
Served with 45th Division. Was with the 7th Army under com- 
mand of General Patton through the Sicilian campaign. Died Sep- 
tember 12, 1943, North African area. 

ALVA C. HARMON, Private, First Class, U. S. Army. Home ad- 
dress: Crescent, Logan County. C. C. Harmon, Father, Crescent. 
Born March 3, 1918. Enlisted September 16, 1940. Member Okla- 
homa National Guard, enlisted July 2, 1940. Served as Mechanic. 
Honorable discharge May 2, 1942, account of health. Died December 
12, 1942, Veterans Administration Facility, Excelsior Springs, Mis- 
souri. 

GAYLE H. HARMAN, Private, Essex Scottish Regiment, Canadian 
Army. Home address : Guthrie, Logan County. T. H. Harman, 
Father, 512 East Washington, Guthrie. Born June 4, 1915. En- 
listed 1939. Previously served in the U. S. Army, 1934 to 1937, 
at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and in Philippine Islands. Sailed for Eng- 
land early in 1941 as member of coast guard. Attended Guthrie 
public schools. Graduated Oklahoma Military Academy, Claremore, 
1932. Died August 19, 1942, in action, Dieppe, France. 

BILLIE JOE HARRIS, Private, First Class, U. S. Army. Home 
address : Atoka, Atoka County. Mrs. Thula Harris, Wife, Rt. 1, 
Atoka. Born April 8, 1919. Enlisted September 16, 1940. Decor- 
ation : Order of the Purple Heart. Member Oklahoma National 
Guard, enlisted 1939. Served with the 45th Division. Sailed for 
overseas duty in May, 1943. Wounded in the invasion of Sicily 
July, 1943. Died November 5, 1943, of wounds received the same 
day in Italy. 

CHARLES A. HEAD, Second Lieutenant, U. S. Army Air Corps. 
Home address : Shawnee, Pottawatomie County. Mrs. Betty Alice 



Oklahoma War Memorial— World War II 249 



Head, Mother, 534 N. Bell St., Shawnee. Born October 4, 1919. 
Enlisted January 29, 1941. Decoration: Order of the Purple Heart. 
Died September 26, 1943, of wounds received in action, in Italy. 

RONALD E. HELDENBRAND, Staff Sergeant, U. S. Army. Home 
address: Blackwell, Kay County. Mrs. Roy Heidenbrand, Mother, 
Blaekwell. Born January 7, 1919. Enlisted September 16, 1940. 
Decoration : Order of the Purple Heart. Member Oklahoma National 
Guard, enlisted November 16, 1937. Graduated Blackwell High 
School and was student printer when he entered the Army. Served 
with 45th Division. Died July 25, 1943, in Sicily. 

STACY L. HENDRIX, Technical Sergeant, U. S. Army Air Corps. 
Home address: Antlers, Pushmataha County. Lewis H. Hendrix, 
I'ather, 206 North Oak, Antlers. Born January 5, 1920. Enlisted 
April 14, 1942. Decoration: Order of the Purple Pleart. Served 
as Radioman on B-17, European Theatre. Reported missing May 
21, 1943. Died June 4, 1943, in Germany. 

LEO R. HICKMAN, Sergeant, U. S. Army. Home address: Durant, 
Bryan County. Mrs. John R. Hickman, Mother, Rt. 1, Durant. 
Born September 19, 1922. Enlisted September 16, 1940. Decora- 
tion: Order of the Purple Heart awarded posthumously. Attended 
Blue Ridge High School. Member and song leader. Church of Christ. 
Served with 45th Division. Died July 15, 1943, in action in Sicily. 

WILLIAM FRANKLIN HINDS, Staff Sergeant, U. S. Army Air 
Corps. Home address : Kellyville, Creek County. Mrs. Martah A. 
Hinds, Mother, Kellyville. Born August 28, 1921. Enlisted July 
6, 1942. Served as Flight Engineer. Died April 19, 1943, Barks- 
dale Field, near Shreveport, Louisiana. 

GARRY F. HINT ON, Staff Sergeant, U. S. Army Air Corps. Home 
address: Bartlesville, Washington County. Mrs. TJieresa S. Hinton, 
Mother, 514 E. 12th St., Bartlesville. Born January 7, 1919. En- 
listed iJecember 9, 1939. Received wings July 3, 1942. Served with 
Transport Carrier Group. Saw one year's foreign service, Puerto 
Rico. Died July 3, 1942, aircraft accident, Maxwell Field, Mont- 
gomery, Alabama. 

ALBERT LEE HODGES, Private, U. S. Army. Home address: 
Bartlesville, Washington County. Mrs. H. B. Hodges, Mother, Rt. 
1, Box 241, Tulsa 15, Oklahoma. Born November 17, 1920. En- 
listed April 1, 1942. Served with Medical Corps. Died December 
9, 1942, in Egypt, North Africa. 

DON E. HODGES, Corporal, U. S. Army. Home address: Okemah, 
Okfuskee County. Melvin Hodges, Father, 605 N. 4th St., Okemah. 
Born April 22, 1923. Enlisted September 16, 1940. Decoration: 
Order of the Purple Heart; Silver Star awarded posthumously for 
gallantry in action. Served with 45th Division. Died July 12, 
1943, in action North African area. 



250 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



WILLIAM P. HOLLINGSWORTH, First Lieutenant, U. S. Army 
Air Corps. Home address: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County. Mrs. 
Virginia W. Hollingsworth, Mother, 820 N.W. 22nd St., Oklahoma 
City. Born May 22, 1918. Enlisted September 1, 1941. Decora- 
tion: Order of the Purple Heart. Member First Baptist Church, 
Oklahoma City. Attended Oldahoma City University three years, 
serving as member orchestra and band and as officer in student 
organizations. Boy Scout Master of Troop 66. Member Chamber 
of Commerce and Kiwanis Club, Oklahoma City. Employee Braniff 
Airlines. Died November 12, 1942, in Western European area. 

JESSE C. HOLLOWAY, Sergeant, U. S. Army. Home address: 
Ardmore, Carter County. Mr. and Mrs. Wallace Holloway, Parents, 
Rt. 2, Ardmore. Born January 13, 1915. Enlisted July 9, 1942. 
Died October 21, 1943, in Italy. 

JOHN L. HOLMES, Staff Sergeant, U. S. Army Air Corps. Home 
address: Tulsa, Tulsa County. Mrs. Mary E. Holmes, Wife, Apt. 
314, 407 W. 4th St., Tulsa. Born October 19, 1908. Enlisted Sep- 
tember 18, 1942. Decoration: Order of the Purple Heart. Received 
commendation from his Commanding Officer for superior airman- 
ship, courage, and expert gunnery. Reported missing in action Aug- 
ust 6, 1943. Died July 25, 1943, in action, Hamburg, Germany. 

FRANK HOTEMA, JR., Corporal, U. S. Army. Home address: 
Goodland, Choctaw County. Frank Hotema, Father, Goodland. 
Born December 17, 1921. Enlisted May 30, 1942. Choctaw Indian. 
Member Goodland Presbyterian Church. Graduate Goodland High 
School, 1942. Member of Goodland Band and active in musical and 
athletic organizations. Served in Tank Destroyer Battalion. Died 
July 31, 1943, Camp Hood, Texas. 

ORAN W. HOWE, Corporal, U. S. Army. Home address: Guthrie, 
Logan County. Mrs. Martha E. Howe, Wife, 333 So. First St., 
Guthrie. Born April 14, 1920. Enlisted June 4, 1942. Decoration: 
Order of the Purple Heart. Served as Gunner on tank. Armored 
Amphibious Infantry. Died November 8, 1943, in action in Italy. 

ERNEST W. HUFFMAN, Private, First Class, U. S. Army. Home 
address: Dover, Kingfisher County. Mrs. Wesley Huffman, Mother, 
Dover. Born October 16, 1918. Enlisted January, 1942. Decora- 
tion: Order of the Purple Heart. Died January 1, 1943, in New 
Guinea. 

JAMES LEE INGRAM, Radioman, Third Class, U. S. Naval Re- 
serve. Home address: Muskogee, Muskogee County. Fred L. In- 
gram, Father, 1310 Ash, Muskogee. Born August 11, 1920. En- 
listed October 22, 1942. Died October 31, 1943, Pacific area. 

TOM W. JACKSON, First Lieutenant, U. S. Army Air Corps. Home 
address : Tipton, Tillman County. Mrs. Nora J aekson, Mother, Tip- 



Oklahoma War Memorial— W odd War II 



251 



ton. Born July 25, 1916. Enlisted April 23, 1941. Decoration: 
Distinguished Flying Cross. Sailed for overseas duty February, 
1943. Died November 25, 1943, in India. 

LEON D. JEFFERS, Staff Sergeant, U. S. Army Ai'r Corps. Home 
address : Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County. Lena I. Stuart, Sister, 
1631 Heyman, Oklahoma City. Born July 16, 1922. Enlisted Sep- 
tember 25, 1942. Died December 1, 1943, over Germany. 

RALPH E. JEHLE, JR., Private, First Class, U. S. Army. Home 
address: Cushing, Payne County. Mrs. Ralph E. Jehle, Sr., Mother, 
25 N. Zunis, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Born April 18, 1922. Enlisted June 
11, 1942. Served as Paratrooper, Infantry Airborne Command. 
Died December 17, 1943, General Hospital, Tunisia, Africa. 

JACK W. JOHNSON, Private, U. S. Army. Home address: Still- 
water, Payne County. Mrs. Addie Johnson, Mother, 1123 Perkins 
Road, Stillwater. Born December 22, 1922. Enlisted December 13, 
1942. Served with Ranger Battalion. Died July 10, 1943, North 
African area. 

ARTHUR W. JOYNER, Second Lieutenant, U. S. Army Air Corps. 
Home address : Arapaho, Custer County. Mr. and Mrs. A. R. Joyner, 
Parents, Arapaho. Born September 22, 1918. Enlisted December, 

1941. Decoration: Air Medal. Graduated High School in 1937, 
Clinton, Oklahoma. Student Chemical engineering, Oklahoma A. & 
M. College, Stillwater, two years. Member of Oklahoma National 
Guard two years. Received wings and commission Hondo, Texas, 
December, 1942. Served as Navigator. Died November 5, 1943, in 
action, Mimoyecques, France. 

DEWAYNE JONES, Radio Operator, U. S. Naval Air Corps. Home 
address: Hydro, Caddo County. Mrs. E. P. Jones, Mother, Hydro. 
Born March 2, 1924. Enlisted March 2, 1942. Died October 1, 

1942, in airplane crash routine flight, Clear Lake, California. 

GEORGE L. KELLEY, Staff Sergeant, U. S. Army. Home address: 
Barnsdall, Osage County. E. J. Kelley, Father, Barnsdall. Born 
June 18, 1919. Enlisted August 5, 1940. Graduated Air Mechanics 
School, Chanute Field, Illinois. Head of Sub-Depot transportation, 
20th School Squadron, Lowry Field, Colorado. Honorary member 
Welfare Association and through this organization promoted greatest 
gathering ever arranged for people with whom he worked. Died 
June 19, 1943, at Fitzsimmons Hospital, Denver, Colorado. 

SAMUEL EDWARD KELLY, JR., First Lieutenant, U. S. Army 
Air Corps. Home address: Altus, Jackson County. Samuel E. 
Kelly, Sr., Father, 414 West Commerce St., Altus. Born November 
7, 1917. Transferred to Army Air Corps November, 1941, as First 
Lieutenant and was graduated as an Observer on December 12, 1941. 



252 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



First enlisted in U. S. Army Field Artillery, July 5, 1940. Grad- 
uated from Gunnery School, Tyndall Field, Florida, June, 1942. 
Sailed for overseas duty September 17, 1942, landed in England in 
October, and was member of first squadron to arrive in North Africa. 
Died December 17, 1942, in action and buried in U. S. Army Ceme- 
tery near Algiers, North Africa. 

LEONARD A. KIMMELL, Corporal, U. S. Army. Home address: 
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County. E. M. Kimmell, Uncle, Grand- 
field, Oklahoma. Born January 25, 1899. Enlisted October, 1942. 
Previously, Assistant Clerk of the Federal Court of the Western 
District of Oklahoma. Served in Judge Advocate's Office, Fort Sill. 
Died March 1, 1943, Will Rogers Field, Oklahoma City. 

GEORGE J. KOCH, Corporal, U. S. Army. Home address: Okla- 
homa City, Oklahoma County. Mrs. J. L. Black, Sister, 2624 N.W. 
27th St., Oklahoma City. Born January 26, 1901. Enlisted March 
23, 1942. Served with Reconnaissance Troops, Guadalcanal from 
December, 1942, to March, 1943. Contracted malaria and given 
honorable discharge August, 1943. Died December 23, 1943, Fox 
Lake, Wisconsin. 

JOHN EBER KRAYBILL, First Lieutenant, U. S. Army Air Corps. 
Home address : Thomas, Custer County. Mrs. B. N. Kraybili, Mother, 
Thomas. Born September 5, 1920. Enlisted December 15, 1941. 
Decoi-ation: Order of the Purple Heart; Air Medal; Oak Leaf Clus- 
ter. Attended University of California, Berkeley, California. Left 
for overseas duty December 16, 1942. Served as Pilot on Liberator 
bomber. Died September 4, 1943, in action in North Africa. 

EMMIT T. LEHMAN, Private, U. S. Army. Home address : Moore- 
land, Woodward County. Mrs. Catherine Lehman, Mother, Moore- 
land. Born June 13, 1917. Enlisted November 10, 1942. Decor- 
ation: Order of the Purple Heart. Died September 21, 1943, in 
Italy. 

RALPH E. LISTER, Private, U. S. Army. Home address: Tulsa, 
Tulsa County. L. E. Lister, Father, 719 North Quincy, Tulsa 6. 
Born May 6, 1922. Enlisted February, 1943. Served in Field Ar- 
tillery. Died December 14, 1943, in Italy. 

TROY LONGAN, Private, U. S. Army. Home address : Wyandotte, 
Ottawa County. William R. Longan, Father, Wyandotte. Born 
March 25, 1914. Enlisted May, 1941. Decoration: Order of the 
Purple Heart. First enlisted and served in the Army at Port 
Francis E. Warren, Wyoming, 1935-36. Died January 31, 1942, 
Manila, Philippine Islands. 

TENO LOPEZ, Sergeant, U. S. Army. Home address: Hartsliorne, 
Pittsburg County. Mrs. Ramona Lopez, Wife, Hartshorne. Born 



Oklahoma War Memorial — World War U 



253 



September 3, 1916. Enlisted January 14, 1940. Graduated Harts- 
horne High School, 1936. Served with 45th Division. Died Novem- 
ber 8, 1943, in Italy. 

JOHNNIE LOWREY, Private, First Class, U. S. Army. Home 
address : Skiatook, Tulsa and Osage, Counties. Mrs. Vada Lowrey, 
Mother, Skiatook. Born May 18, 1919. Enlisted January 21, 1942. 
Decoration : Order of the Purple Heart. Died November 4, 1943, 
in Italy. 

WILLIAM W. G. LYDA, Second Lieutenant, U. S. Marine Corps 
Reserve. Home address : Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Mrs. Nora G. 
Lyda, Mother, 3715 Appleton, N.W., Washington, D. C. Born De- 
cember 10, 1920. Enlisted June 24, 1942. Central High School, 
Oklahoma City, track star, established interseholastic 440 dash that 
still stands. Graduated University of Oklahoma, 1942. University 
track star, greatest 440 and 880 yard man in this school's history. 
Received wings and commission at Pensacola, Florida, May 18, 1943. 
Attached to Dive Bomber Squadron. Died October 19, 1943, in 
airplane crash returning from search for lost pilot in the Pacific, 
Santa Ana, California. Burial Arlington National Cemetery, Vir- 
ginia. 

CLIFFORD A. LYON, Sergeant, U. S. Marine Corps. Home ad- 
dress : Avard, Woods County. Mr. and Mrs. Vern S. Lyons, Parents, 
Avard. Born November 26, 1919. Enlisted January 12, 1942. Served 
as Chief Mechanic in a marine amphibious battalion. Died Novem- 
ber 20, 1943, in South Pacific. 



254 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



JAMES HUGH McBIRNEY^ 
1870-1944 

Bv Fred S. Clinton, M.D.. F.A.C.8. 

James Hugh McBirney was born in Cloghjordan, County Tip- 
perary, Ireland, on March. 1, 1870, the eldest son of the Reverend 
Hugh McBirney D.D., and Susan Mark McBirney. The family moved 
to the United States when James was about five and a half years old. 
Settling in Southern Kansas, Doctor McBirney carried on his min- 
istry in the Methodist Episcopal Church for thirty years and he 
and Mrs. McBirney reared their family of six children,^ giving them 
the advantages of a cultured, Christian home and of education in 
the public schools. 

In 1899, James Hugh McBirney was employed as a bookkeeper 
in the Bank of Columbus, Columbus, Kansas, and seven years later 
held the same position in the C. M. Condon and Company Bank, 
Coffeyville, Kansas.^ In 1897, he accepted the position of book- 
keeper in the Tulsa Banking Company, the first banking institu- 
tion in Tulsa, Indian Territory.* 

The Tulsa Banking Company was reorganized into the First 
National Bank and Mr. McBirney was elected Vice President in 
1904. When another reorganization of the Bank took place with 
the majority ownership going to outsiders, he decided to organize 
and establish a home-owned banking institution. He was joined by 
Sam P. McBirney, Lee Clinton, and T. E. Smiley, and on February 



1 This sketch was requested and written especially for The Chronicles of Okla- 
homa. 

2 In the order of their birth, the six sons and daughters were James Hugh Mc- 
Birney, subject of this sketch; Robert A. McBirney, 1119 South Boulder; Miss Anna 
McBirney, 1605 South Elwood; Sam P. MoBimey, died January 20, 1936; Lea Mc- 
Birney, 1605 South Elwood; Mrs. H. 0. Bird (Caroline McBirney, 1411 South Gal- 
veston, all residents of Tulsa. 

3 The C. M. Condon and Company Bank is now known as the Condon National 
Bank of Coffeyville, Kansas. On October 5, 1892, the notorious Dalton gang of out- 
laws made a surprise attack on the C. M. Condon and Company Bank and the First 
National Bank of Coffeyville, Kansas, at the same time. The fight that took place 
resulted as follows: Bob and Grat Dalton and Dick Broadwell were killed within 
five feet of each other; Tom Evans was killed and Emmet Dalton received twenty- 
seven gunshot wounds resulting in permanent injury. Coffeyville citizens killed were 
George Cubine, City Marshall Connelly, Charlie Brown, Lucian Baldwin; and 
seriously injured, Thomas G. Ayers and T. A. Reynolds. None of the robbers es- 
caped and no money was lost. Emmet Dalton died in California on July 13, 1937. 
His mother was a sister of Cole Younger's father. 

* The Tulsa Banking Company was organized in 1895 with the following officers : 
Jay Forsythe, President; Ben F. Colley, Vice President; C. W. Brown, Cashier. In 
1896, Lee Clinton was employed as book-keeper. 



James Hugh McBirney 



255 



4, 1904, organized the Bank of Commerce. This was reorganized 
under the name of National Bank of Commerce on March 9, 1911, 
with the election of James H. McBirney, President ; Lee Clinton, Vice 
President; S. P. McBirney, Cashier; and Lea McBirney and Joe P. 
Boyd, Jr., assistant cashiers. With its steady growth and expansion, 
the planning and building of an entirely modern bank home was 
commenced at 10 East Third Street. The National Bank of Com- 
merce moved into this magnificent and substantial seven-story build- 
ing with sub-story and basement, in 1923. 

The McBirney Building, a modern business and office structure 
of ten stories, erected in 1928, occupies the southwest corner of Main 
and Third streets, Tulsa, and adjoins the Bank Building with which 
it is connected and operated. The builder and owner, the McBirney 
Investment Company, had the following officers: J. H. McBirney, 
President; A. P. Wright, Vice President; Charles S. Jones, Vice 
President; V. P. Rader, Secretary; S. P. McBirney, Treasurer. 

Mr. McBirney continued in the banking business fifty -two years, 
forty-seven of which were in Tulsa, entitling him to the honor of 
Dean of the Banking Industry in Tulsa. The Bank of Commerce, 
organized in 1904, and nationalized in 1911, is the only bank in 
Tulsa that has stood the stress of storm and test of time for forty 
years under the same uninterrupted management. ^ 

In addition to being a stockholder, director and officer in the 
Bank, Mr. McBirney had investments or interest in insurance, bonds, 
stocks, and properties, both real and personal, including minerals 
and oil. He was interested in sports for general amusement, diver- 
sion or skill, such as athletics and outdoor activities, like baseball, 
football, hunting, fishing, swimming, boating, and camping. One of 
the objectives in coming to Tulsa was to accept a position as pitcher 
for the City's first baseball team organized in 1897. In this, he 
earned an enviable reputation.* 



3 The Board of Directors and Officers of the National Bank of Commerce of 
Tulsa, June 30, 1944, are as follows: 

Directors Officers 
J. D. McBirney J. D. McBirney, President and Chairman of the Board 

W. A. Vandever A. P. Wright, Executive Vice President 

J. N. Thompson C. B. Wallace, Vice President 

A. P. Wright Mac W. Rupp, Vice President 

Wm. M. Thompson T. P. Farmer, Vice President and Cashier 
Mrs. Vera McBirney Lea McBirney, Asst. Vice-President 

C. V. Baker, Asst. Cashier 
R. A. West, Asst. Cashier 
Ray C. Montgomery, Asst. Cashier 
* W. J. Baber, who came from Coffeyville, Kansas, to manage the Lynch Mer- 
cantile Company in Tulsa, arranged with the Tulsa Banking Company to offer James 
H. McBirney, of Coffeyville, the position of book-keeper with the privilege of play- 
ing baseball on the Tulsa team in 1897. 



256 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



James Hugh McBirney was united in marriage on June 6, 1901, 
with Miss Vera Clinton, of Red Pork, Indian Territory, the daughter 
of Charles and Louise (Atkins) Clinton. The marriage ceremony 
was performed by the Reverend Doctor McBirney assisted by the 
Reverend Mr. C. W. Kerr, Pastor of the Presbyterian Church of 
Tulsa, at the Clinton family home in Red Fork where the Clinton 
High School now stands. 

Enjoying their home and sharing it with others, open house 
was maintained by Mr. and Mrs. McBirney from the time of estab- 
lishing their home in their first modest residences, 417 South Main 
Street and 515 South Denver. Their handsome, modern residence 
at 1414 South Galveston, Tulsa, occupied in 1928, is adapted to 
both small and large parties, games, and a variety of entertainment, 
having been the scene of many gatherings, — ^family, church, business, 
and social. 

Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. McBirney, three of 
whom are living : Dorothy Vera, Martha, and J. D. McBirney. 
Simmons McBirney, aged 16, died July 21, 1936. Dorothy Vera 
McBirney is now Mrs. Robert M. Hardy, of Yakima, "Washington. 
Martha McBirney married David M. Bradley and resides at 2101 
East 22nd Place, Tulsa. They are the parents of three children: 
James D., John Thomas, and Dorothy Anne Bradley. Lieutenant 
J. D. McBirney married Elizabeth, the only daughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. Henry Greis, of Tulsa. Lieutenant McBirney has been in the 
U. S. service over two years, he and his wife making their home in 
Tulsa. 

James Hugh McBirney was a member of Tulsa Lodge No. 71, 
A.F. and A.M. ; held the Knights Templar degree in the York rites 
and the 32nd degree in the Scottish rites, and was also a member 
of Adkar Temple, A.A.O.N.M.S. He was a member and supporter 
of Red Cross and Community Chest; a member of the Tulsa Club, 
the Tulsa Country Club, Chamber of Commerce, Mens Dinner Club, 
Knife and Fork Club. 

He served for over ten years as member of the Executive Coun- 
cil of the American Bankers Association, and for six years as chair- 
man of the Agricultural Committee of the same organization. He 
was member of the Examining Committee of the Northwestern Life 
Insurance Company of Milwaukee more than three years. 

Christened as an infant in the Methodist Episcopal Church by 
his father, Mr. McBirney was a member of the First Methodist 
Church in Tulsa from about 1897, and a member of the Official 
Board of Trustees from 1904. He gave many years of his official 
and personal service to keep an efficient organization to plan, con- 
struct and pay for the magnificent Gothic structure of the First 
Methodist Church on Boulder Avenue, Tulsa, which stands as a monu- 



James Hugh McBirney 



257 



ment to his leadership and to the sacrifices of every contributor. 
The McBirney Chapel, a small, beautiful auditorium adjoining and 
opening into the main auditorium is dedicated to the memory of the 
Reverend Doctor and Mrs. Hugh McBirney, father and mother of 
James Hugh and his brothers and sisters. 

Hundreds of messages of condolence came to Mrs. McBirney 
and tlie family from friends and business connections in Oklahoma 
and throughout the Nation, upon the death of James Hugh McBirney 
on June 8, 1944. 

The day of the funeral, promptly at 2 p.m., the soft music of 
the great pipe organ stopped the vagrant whispering in the large 
audience which filled the main auditorium of the First Methodist 
Church and the service began. The altar on the east side of the 
Church was banked with beautiful floral offerings extending from 
north to the south wall of the Church except in front of the pulpit. 
The service was conducted by the Reverend Mr. John J. Crowe, 
Paster of the First Methodist Church, and he was assisted by the 
Reverend Doctor C. W. Kerr, Pastor Emeritus of the First Presby- 
terian Church ; the service was dignified and harmonious. Appro- 
priate music was furnished by Mrs. George B. Stanley, Miss Nina 
Elkins, and Mrs. Don Drake, organist. Pall bearers were Messrs. 
A. P. Wright, C. B. Wallace, Mac W. Rupp, Lou Witwer, H. J. 
Haines, and T. P. Farmer. Interment was at Rose Hill Cemetery, 
Tulsa. 

Countless flowers given during and after his last illness attested 
the wide esteem in which Mr. McBirney was held by people in all 
walks of life. Many gave expression of their friendship in more 
lasting memorials, such as contributions to the Baby Milk Fund and 
to the Daughters of the American Revolution "Blood Plasma Mem- 
ory Book" fund providing blood plasma for transfusion to help save 
the lives of soldiers on the battle fronts of World War II. A book 
fund to establish a section in the Public Library dedicated to the 
memory of Mr. McBirney was proposed and met Avith immediate 
acceptance June 9, 1944. The following inscription was placed in 
the first book donated to this Library memorial: 

This Book of Books is a memorial to James H. McBirney, 
March 1, 1870— June 8, 1944 
"Blessed be the memory of those who have left their blood, their 
spirits, their lives in these precious books, and have willingly in- 
vested themselves into these during monuments to give light unto 
others." 

Bishop Joseph Hall 
(1574-1556) 



258 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



The following tribute is from a letter addressed to the writer of 
this biographical sketch, by Bishop A. Frank Smith :^ 

"This generation has never witnessed a better example of a sane, well- 
rounded life than was afforded by the life of the late J. H. McBirney, of 
Tulsa. Nor one of whom it could more appropriately be said, as the Old 
Testament records of David: 'He served his own generation by the will of 
God.' Mr. McBirney put first things first and all other things were added 
unto him. 

"He was born and reared in a religious atmosphere, and his relation 
to God and his fellow man were determined for him before he had reached 
the age of understanding; and when he became a man he did not turn 
his back upon his Christian heritage, rather did he carve a career that 
stands as everlasting proof of the fact that the ways of a righteous man 
are blessed of God. 

"Mr. McBirney achieved eminence in business, social, and professional 
circles, not only in Tulsa, but in the life of the Nation; but he remained 
a devout, humble Christian, and he counted all honors and achievements 
as secondary to his service in his Church and to his Lord. 

"For more than forty years he was the Chairman of the Board of 
Trustees of The First Methodist Church of Tulsa, the most responsible 
position open to a layman in the Methodist Church. Under his leadership 
the magnificent Gothic cathedral, one of the noblest edifices of worship in 
America, which houses First Church, was erected. During all these years 
he stood as a bulwark in his church and community, opposing everything 
that was wrong, and supporting all things that were good. 

"Mr. McBirney will long be remembered as a financier, a civic leader, 
a builder, a master of men. But those who knew him best will remember 
his moral character, his beautiful family life, his humble devotion to his 
Lord, and they will look forward to seeing him again in 'that house not 
made with hands,' whose builder and maker is God." 



' Bishop A. Frank Smith, of the Methodist Church, lives in Houston 4, Texas. 
He was the Bishop of the Southern Methodist Church Conference in 1930-31 and 
1934-37 in Oklahoma, and, as one of the participating Bishops of the South Central 
Jurisdictional Conference, had a part in the consecration of the Bishops elected 
at this Conference and the recognition of the Retiring Bishop at the First Methodist 
Church, Tulsa, Oklahoma, June 15, 1944. 



Stanley Explores Oklahoma 



259 



STANLEY EXPLORES OKLAHOMA 

Annotated by Lona Shawver 

It is through the courtesj^ of Colonel M. L. Crimmins, U.S.A. 
Retired, that The Chronicles presents a part of the Diary kept by 
Lieutenant David S. Stanley,^ acting quartermaster of the expedi- 
tion under the command of Lieutenant Ancel Weeks Whipple, which 
crossed Oklahoma in 1853 while making a survey for a possible rail- 
way route from Fort Smith to the Pacific. The expedition often 
camped at places marked by Captain R. B. Marcy's exploring party 
which had crossed Oklahoma the year before. ^ 

Colonel Crimmins and Colonel David S. Stanley, son of Lieu- 
tenant Stanley, were aides on General J. J. Coppings' staff in 1898, 
during the Spanish-American War.^ Colonel Stanley was quarter- 
master at the Soldiers' Home in Washington, D. C, when he gave 
Colonel Crimmins both his personal memoirs and the Diary which 
his father had kept on the Whipple Expedition.* 

Only that part of the Diary referring to Oklahoma and the 
Texas Panhandle is published here. Readers of The Chronicles will 
be interested in the descriptions of places and the mention of per- 
sons that were important in the early settlement and the develop- 
ment of Oklahoma.^ 

Lieutenant Stanley was delayed at Fort Smith ten days after 
Whipple's party had set out, waiting for supplies that had not ar- 



1 "Stanley, David Sloan. Ohio. Ohio. Cadet MAI July 1848(9); bvt 2 It 
2 drgs 1 July 1852; 2 It 6 Sept 1853; 2 It 1 cav 3 Mar 1855; 1 It 27 Mar 1855; 
capt 16 Mar 1861; 4 cav 3 Aug 1861; brig gen vols 28 Sept 1861; maj gen vols 
29 Nov 1862; hon must out of vol ser 1 Feb 1866; maj 5 cav 1 Dec 1863; col 22 
inf 28 July 1866; brig gen 24 Mar 1884; retd 1 June 1892; bvt It col 31 Dec 
1862 for gal and mer ser in the battle of Stone River Tenn; col 15 May 1864 
for gal and mer ser in the battle of Resaca Ga; brig gen 13 Mar 1865 for gal and 
mer ser in the battle of Ruffs Station Ga and maj gen 13 March 1865 for gal 
and mer ser in the battle of Franklin Tenn; awarded medal of honor 29 Mar 1893 
for dist bravery in the battle of Franklin Tenn 30 Nov 1864 where he was severely 
wounded while serving as maj gen of vols comdg 4 army corps; died 13 Mar 1902." 
— Francis B. Heitman, Historical Register (Washington: Government Printing Office, 
1903), Vol. I, p. 915. 

2 Grant Foreman, A Pathfinder in the Southwest, the Itinerary of Lieutenant 
A. W. Whipple during his Explorations for a Railway Route from Fort Smith to 
Los Angeles in the years 1853 & 1854 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 
1941), p. 17; Grant Foreman, Marcy & the Gold Seekers, the Journal of Captain 
R. B. Marcy (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1939). 

3 Letter from Colonel Crimmins May 27, 1938, to James W. Moffitt, Secretary, 
Oklahoma Historical Society. 

* Letter from Colonel Crimmins September 10, 1940, to Lona Shawver. 
5 Foreman, A Pathfinder in the Southwest, p. 29. 



260 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



rived on account of difficulties in transportation np the Arkansas 
River. The supplies included presents purchased by the U. S. In- 
dian Bureau, to be distributed to the Indians met en route. A mili- 
tary escort of seventy men with a dozen or more large wagons ac- 
companied the expedition from Fort Smith. The agency referred 
to in the first entry of the Diary was the Choctaw Agency at Skully- 
ville about a mile east of the present site of Spiro, Le Flore County, 
Oklahoma.^ This was "Camp 2" of the Whipple Expedition. 

Diary of D. S. Stanley, United States, 2nd. Dragoons, 
of a march from Fort Smith, Arkansas to San Diego, 
California, made in 1853 

Sunday, July 24th. 

Bidding my friends at Fort Smith good-bye, I set out in company 
with Mr. White, on a tour I had so long been anxiously looking forward 
to. Passed the Peanto — large cane break. Saw a deer, the first I have 
seen in the West as yet. Met two of our wagons broken down and a 
little further stuck fast in the mud ourselves. After much exertion got 
our wagons out and moved on to camp at the agency. 
July 25th. 

Sick in bed all day. Today our wagons joined us. 
July 26th. 

Started late and marched ten miles. Got into camp at dark. Jones 
lost his mule. Camped on a prairie. Bad water and scarce. 
July 27th. 

Moved five miles and camped. Country covered with postoaks. Soil 
does not appear very fertile. In many parts stony. Rode some miles ahead 
to look for water — found none. Saw an Indian settlement. Survey still 
behind — discouraging — extremely expensive. Must be reduced If possible. 
July 28th. 

Inspected early in the morning and sent for Lt. Whipples mule. Did 
not move today. Great excitement and chase before breakfast occasioned 
by one of our horses bringing a drove of wild horses galloping towards us, 
among which was Lt. Jones' mule, a beautiful dun-colored animal — instantly 
all hands gave chase, surrounding the whole drove on the open prairie. 
At one instant the whole drove was dashing full speed towards the edge 
of the forest and again they turned at full speed in another direction, as 
some men appeared before them. Our men gradually closed upon them 
and were certain of their prize, when the whole drove dashed by, almost 
running over them — and off they went! The mule, however, was cut off 
and again driven to camp and again broke away — and thus he was sur- 
rounded and escaped many times, until finally one of our men succeeded 
in capturing him. Our party hopes to make better headway tomorrow, as 
a prairie is heard of leading on in our direction. 

July 29th. ' ' ' ! 

Packed up and marched six miles over a wooded country^ covered 
with thick growth of oak trees. Visited with Messrs. Campbell and Mul- 
hausen (went to) ■ the top of a high adjacent hill and had an excellent 
view of the surrounding country to the southeast. The view is magnificent, 
range after ranged of mountains succeeding each other with charming 
prairie valleys between. Joining camp I found all in a quandry about a 
place to camp. After looking at matters for a while I finally brought the 
wagons into corral and formed a pretty camp. Doctor Bigelow captured 

^Ibid., p. 30. 

Ibid., p. 40. San Bois, Sugar Loaf, Cheviot, Camp 5. 
«Ibid., p. 40. San Bois. 



Stanley Explores Oklahoma 



261 



an immense rattlesnake. Dissatisfaction in camp regarding the slowness 
of our progress. Weather bad, is pouring rain. Bill Baker colored boy, 
deserted and stole his mule. 
July 30th. Saturday. 

Left camp late in the morning in consequence of waiting for one of 
Mr. Whipple's mules. Strayed off during the night. Passed into the coun- 
try of the cross-timbers, so called from the strips of timber that inter- 
sects the prairies, giving the appearance of a wooded country when you 
look across the prairie ahead. Encamped on Coon Creek, a beautiful spot. 
Encamped in the center of a grove with beautiful undulating prairie in 
front. Visited with Mr. Gains the top of a neighboring hill covered with 
grass only. The prospect of this hill is perfectly enchanting at night. 
Went to bed late. 
July 31st. Sunday. 

Left camp9 early and marched ten miles, encamping on San Bois Creek, 
a sluggish stream, scarcely running. The bottom covered with thick growth 
of small timber. Indians in camp in great numbers. Hired Indian as a 
guide. Saw a great deal of burnt prairie today. Country we passed over 
today was rolling prairie and cross-timbers. Bad humor and too high a 
sense of my own wickedness to even feel fit to open my Bible. 
August 1st. Monday 

Left camp early in the morning and after a tiresome drive arrived at 
an encampment two miles beyond Cooper's creek, at the lower end of a 
prairie and near the same creek we left in the morning. Bad humor all 
day. Oh, that God may forgive me the wickedness I have an am con- 
stantly guilty of on this expedition, owing to the constant crosses and 
consequent fits of bad temper I fall into. Indian improvements — fine 
large farms and fine herds of cattle, sheep and poultry. Indians applying 
to Doct. B. for prescriptions — poor and sickly — very trusty. 
August 2nd. 

Left camp this morning near the Sans Bois during a heavy rain and 
marched ten miles over an extremely difficult road and camped on a 
tributary of the same stream. Passed, near the end of a marsh, over a 
steep rocky hill covered with oak timber and very difficult for the mules. 
Camp of today very romantically situated, being situated in a large basin 
surrounded with hills on both sides. Our Indian guides brought in turkey 
and venison. Bad humor, as usual, owing to young gentlemen putting 
their tents according to their own inclinations. Resolve to pay more at- 
tention to business. 
August 3rd. 

Remained in campH and settled accounts. Extremely hot and op- 
presive. Found commissary accounts very complicated and incorrect. 
Attempted to put them in correct form. Wished, after, I had not accepted 
the place. Had a little experience today in washing my own clothes. Doct. 
B., Mr. Mulhausen and our Indian guide set out early for the Canadian, 
twelve miles distant — very anxious to go along — prevented by business. 
Snakes numerous as usual, large rattlesnakes, cotton mouths, and moc- 
casin killers. Dull day. 

August 4th. 

Left camp early in the morning made the first long march we have 
made on the trip, making eighteen miles in a country principally prairie, 
having a range of high hills covered with timber on our right and low 
prairie hills on our left. Found water in abundance, — traversed and looked 
over much of the country adjacent to the road, in company with our In- 



^ Ibid., p. 41. Haskell County. 

^^Ibid., p. 42. Near Kinta, Oklahoma. 

11 In the vicinity of Quinton, Pittsburg County. 



262 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



dian guide Frazure. Saw a very large specimen of gray wolf, but could 
not get a shot. Encamped in a bad place on a bayou in the bottom of 
Gaines Creek.12 Found our careless men had lost four of our young mules. 
Hard work anticipated to-morrow. Prayed to' God to preserve me from 
the wickedness one is so much liable to commit from the state of humor 
produced by such trying journeys. 
August 5th. Friday 

Started early this morning and made a tiresome march through the 
bottom of Gaines Creek. The wagon-master came up early with a wagon 
that had been left behind, broken yesterday. My attention was entirely 
taken up in passing the two difficult ravines which occur in Gaines Creek 
bottom. Found an Indian farm on the other side where the wagon-master, 
the sergeant and myself regailed ourselves with water-melons. Encamped, 
after a short march, near a good spring where we remained all day, the 
men being employed getting their mules shod. Our men saw deer and 
turkeys but had no luck in procuring any. Doct. B., discovered an entirely 
new species of prairie fruit, resembling the cherry in appearance, but the 
plum in its seed and other qualities. 
August 6th. 

Left camp early, much detained by wagons' upsetting. Met a train 
from Fort Arbuckle. Met an old classmate, Lt. Douglas. Crossed Coal 
Creek late in the evening and encamped in a grove of oak. Indians brought 
chickens, peaches and ponies. Very unwell. Rained heavily. 
August 7th. Sunday 

I head my journal of this day Sunday, but I did not know it was 
Sunday until we were eating supper, when Mr. Jones remarked, looking 
at some Indians, that they were spending Sunday evening in elegant leisure, 
which recalled the day to my mind and the self reproach of having spent 
.the Lord's day in perfect thoughtlessness. To-day we made a short march 
of six miles over a beautiful prairie. Saw the prairie chicken for the 
first time. Camped by a beautiful pond of water. Country, prairie inter- 
spersed with strips of oak timbers. Water good, cool, plenty. 

August 8th. 

Left camp and marched ten miles over prairie country. Encamped on 
a fine creek^s of water in the edge of a high prairie. Best grass we have 
seen yet. Elevation some three hundred feet above Fort Smith. Saw many 
Shawnees. Procured peaches, melons. Our servant sick. Mr. W. made 
a reconnaisance of the country. 

August 9th. 

Left camp and made a hard day's march over the worst road I have 
yet seen. Crossed a long hill covered with large rocks and sand-gravel, 
over which our mules stumbled and floundered distressingly. Encamped 
in the woods on a bluff over a deep canon containing very good water. 

Wednesday August 10th. 

Started late and had proceeded a few rods when one of our wagons 
upset; another wagon broke down in the course of the day. Had a day of ex- 
tremely difficult travel. Had steep hills to cross, covered with blocks of 
sand-stone, the road in the narrow valleys follows, for the most part, the 
beds of mountain torrents and is difficult beyond anything I have ever 
seen wagons pass over. The country has all the appearance of great fer- 
tility. The grass is rank and fine and the surface is divided between 
prairie and a low thick forest of white-oak and blackjack. A great deal 
of rock is seen at the surface. Constantly a reddish sandstone of the 

12 Expedition now in Pittsburg County headed toward McAlester. 

13 Foreman, A Pathfinder in the Southwest, p. 46. 
^^Ibid., p. 48. Between Shawnee Creek and Calvin. 



Stanley Explores Oklahoma 



Carboniferous formation. Once I have seen slate. Express from Fort 
Smith today. Nothing important. 
Thursday August 11th. 

Left camp and marched two miles over difficult country of sand-stone 
rock, extremely difficult of passage. The country here quite changed in 
character, spreading out into a beautiful prairie. On the left of this 
prairie, which is some six miles, occurs the second Shawnee village, made 
up of some half dozen houses, with little patches of corn about them. 
Tried to bargain with the Indians for ponies; found them all more or less 
exhorbitant in their prices. Camped in the bottom of the Boggy, one of 
the tributaries of the Red River. Doctor B. and Mr. M. visited the town 
on Little River. Mr. Rogers left this morning. I wrote note to Mr. Potter. 
Friday 12th. 1853. 

Remained in camp today for the purpose of hearing from Chisholm,i5 
the Indian guide. Mr. Warren and Mr. Hicks went in the morning over 
the Little River for the purpose of seeing the guide and having bolts made 
for the wagons. We occupied the day on the papers of the expedition 
and in fitting up for resuming our march. Had our men practicing with 
their rifles today. Celebrated with Mr. M. the birth of Napoleon Bonaparte. 
Saturday August 13th. 

Remained in camp today on Boggy, waiting the return of our messen- 
gers and guides. We are told by guides that 12 or twenty miles from the 
route we passed, and to the south, a level country reaches from Fort Smith 
to this place, 125 miles west. Coal disappears here altogether and the 
formation is still Carboniferous. The streams here have much quick-sand 
in their beds. The Creek Indians are situated north of the Canadian and 
south of the Arkansas and west of the Grand River. 

The Choctaws are south of the Arkansas and Canadian. The order of 
the tribes west from Fort Smith are: 1st Choctaws, 2nd., Chickasaws, com- 
mencing at Gaines Creek, 3rd., Shawnees, commencing in the hilly country 
nearly opposite Little River. Near Boggy buffalo grass appears sparsely; 
game scarce, water good. 
Sunday 14th. 

Mr. Whipple, Mr. C. and Doctor B. accompanied by a sergeant went 
back this morning to make a reconnaissance of the country south of the 
Marcy's route. We set out early for a long day's march, Mr. Wai'ren and 
myself acting as guides. Had bad luck in breaking down wagons. En- 
camped on a rocky creek late in the afternoon. Good encampment and 
water. 

Monday 15th. 

Left camp early and made a march of fifteen miles. Missed Marcy's 
trail about ten miles after starting. Met a Shawnee who showed us back 
to the road, by passing over a high prairie on the top of one of the ranges 
and the Delaware Range of mountains. At the Delaware Range we passed 
from sandstone to the carboniferous formation. Carboniferous limestone 
underlying sandstone. Saw five specimens of cacti. Encamped on good 
water on the west of the Delaware Range. Made a very good day's march. 
Had melons and peaches and fruits from Shawnees. 
Tuesday 16th. 

Made a hard day's march. Sick all day. Saw deer in the road. Passed 
Topfkiie creek where I thought to encamp. Finally marched five miles 
further and encamped on the prairies that extends to Beavers. Good camp. 
Indians brought in game. 



15 Jesse Chisholm. Thomas U. Taylor, Jesse Chisholm. (Bandera, Texas: 

Frontier Times, 1939). 

16 Foreman, Pathfinder in the Southwest, p. 54. Sandy Creek in Pontotoc 
County. 



264 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



Wednesday 17th. 

Marched over fine prairie country quite rapidly today. Very warm. 
Still unwell. Arrived in sight of Beavers at 12.M. Sought camp in several 
places but failed until showed by this celebrated guide himself. (Chisholm) 
Encamped west of Beavers on a fine stream of water. 

Thursday 18th. 

Chisholm, Bushman, Johnson all in camp today. (More remarks on 
these guides hereafter) Health better. 

Friday 19th. 

Remained in camp at Beavers. This encampment is situated on a 
small branch running into the Canadian, here about one and half miles 
distant. Beaver the most celebrated Indian guide in the United States. 
Has settled here on the ground formerly occupied by a detachment of 
U. S. Infantry, the command of Captain Marcy. 'Twas here that Captain 
M. first formed his idea of explorations which have since made him some- 
what notorious. Beaver was his first guide and the guides of his last 
summer's expedition, John Bull and Bushman, live here. These men are 
members of the once powerful and noble Delaware tribe, now nearly ex- 
tinct. Beaver's health is very bad and he despairs sui'viving long. He is, 
for an Indian, a man of remarkable fine mind and formerly great activity. 
Mr. Whipple offered him five dollars a day to go along with us as a guide, 
but his family opposed and so far he has made no consent. Herded mules 
here for first time. Last settlement of Indians another place, situated 
midway between the cross-timbers. There are two remarkable belts of 
timber that run along interrupted course from northeast to southwest 
across the country from Missouri into Texas. The timber is large and 
fine and the belts vary in breadth from one to fifteen miles. 

Saturday August 20th. 

Remained in camp, still waiting in hopes of procuring guides. Went 
across the Canadian in the morning to Bushman's. Saw Bushman but 
could get no satisfaction of him. Struck with singular appearance of the 
Canadian. Came to camp just in time to learn that half our mules had 
left. All hustle and confusion in a moment and all the men disappeared 
in search. Rode hard all afternoon. Rode up and down the Canadian a 
long way. Chisholm came over this evening and gave us his Mexican boy 
as interpreter, and took his leave. Black Beaver spent the evening with 
us recounting his travels and adventures. Mr. Gaines very sick. Despond- 
ency and bad humor in camp. 

Sunday, August 21st. 

Waked very early to learn that our cattlei^ had again broken loose. 
Sent our Mexicans early for them. Mr. Gains insists on going back. The 
Indians seem determined not to accompany our expedition. The Indians 
at this place are Delawares and are a noble enterprising race, much dis- 
persed and reduced. They live in a most disgusting state of slothfulness 
and filth, half naked, dirty and diseased, they seem the most degraded that 
one can imagine human nature's becoming. 

Monday 25th.. August. 

Saw last night for the first time in my life, a comet. It appeared about 
40 degrees above the horison at 8 'oclock P.M. — was quite brilliant, being 
equal to a star of the 1st., magnitude. Left Beavers at eight o'clock, after 
taking my leave of Mr. Gaines, one of the surveyors of our party, who 
returns by way of Fort Arbuckle home, on account of sickness. At Beavers 
we leave the traveled country entirely and enter on the great prairie quite 
destitute of water. Our day's travel quite laborous and our stock suffered 



17 Beef cattle, somewhere southwest of Purcell, Oklahoma, on the Marcy route. 



Stanley Explores Oklahoma 



265 



severely. We encamped on one of the small branches of Walnut Creek, 
in one of the strips of cross-timbers. Two Indians, calling themselves 
Kiowas who we overtook toward evening, set the prairie on fire near our 
place of encampment, evidently with the idea of routing us. We, however 
turned out all hands, set counter fire and saved our camp. Saw deer and 
prairie wolf today. Geological formation, red clay, and clay slate, very 
red. Cactacae in great abundance. 

Tuesday 23rd. 

Gave our teamsters their first lesson in herding. Any amount of 
complaining at getting up at three o'clock in the morning to turn their 
mules out to graze. March ten miles over a country of burnt prairie, 
having deep canons on our right and left, haveing the appearance of con- 
taining water. Started deer and wolves; the dismal howling of this last 
animal has been annojdng for the last few nights. We still keep on the 
dividing ridge between the Canadian and Washita. Great excitement this 
afternoon cause by the first appearance in our camp of a real wild Indian. 
Two Wacohs came in with no covering but a fold of skin about the loins. 
They are armed with bows of the bois d'arc and carry a large sheaf of 
arrows, tipped with stone, in quivers made of raw deer skin. Had an 
oyster supper given by Mr. Whipple as payment of a bet made on the 
plains upon our last presidential election. 

Wednesday 24th. 

Left camp this morning and after making two miles west under the 
guidance of a Wacoh Indian, we were suddenly brought up by a deep 
canon entirely impossible to wagons. Mr. W. commenced grading the 
banks — but after exploring we found that we were down on the tributary 
of the Washita and that the country westward was impracticable. We re- 
traced our steps east of our camp last night and succeeded in reaching 
again the high ridge we have been on for the two days proceeding. We 
passed a fine stream of running water and were stopped at 3 P.M. by a 
deep stream we were obliged to bridge. We were guided today by a 
Keechio, a most rascally looking fellow. Saw plenty game today. 

Thursday 25th. 

Express from Fort Smith via Little River this morning. No news for 
me. Crossed high rolling prairie and cross-timbers, making a slow march. 
Passed three tributaries of Walnut Creek, all very difficult. Went three 
or four miles up the left bank of Walnut Creek and puzzled our engineers 
by turning south. Camped late near Camp 30 of Captain Marcy.18 

Friday 26th. 

Left camp early this morning accompanied by a most villanious look- 
ing Wacoh as a guide. Traveled some ten or twelve miles on the divide 
of the Canadian and Washita where we passed south Canadian slope where 
the country entirely changes its character. From the rapidly falling off 
slope the prairie here becomes greatly undulating. Sometimes we see 
plains that stretch our for miles, apparently entirely level and from the 
red sandstone we pass into a formation of extensive beds of gypsum. The 
ravines and water become scarce. We here saw mustang and antelope for 
the first time, extremely shy and impossible to approach nearer than 
half mile. 

Saturday 27th. August. 

Country changes in character again, today becoming quite hilly, the 
gulleys in the valleys being extremely hard to pass from their boggy 
nature. We marched south of Deer Creeki9 and made only fifteen miles. 
Encamped at an old Indian camp. I had this day my first taste of weather 



18 Custer County, southeast of Arapaho. 

19 Caddo County, Boggy Creek. 



266 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



of the prairies. After the rain of last night, cold wind from the north 
set in and at sunrise was perfectly chilling. Our camp presented a most 
ludicrous appearance about breakfast time. All the clothes in possession 
of entire party were on the backs of the owners and some of the gentle- 
men not content with two or three coats had their heads thrust through 
blankets, but sunshine about noon soon produced a general doffing. 

Sunday 28th. 

Crossed Deer Creek early in the morning, where our men killed plenty 
game and after proceeding over a hilly country, came in sight of the 
Canadian and also found the point at which the engineers' trail north of 
the creek joined Marcy's trail. We marched fifteen miles on the range 
between the Canadian and Deer Creek and encamped at Marcy's Camp 33, 
on a spring at the head of this creek, country cross-timber and beds of 
gypsum. 

Monday 29th. ^ \ p' \'W''"W\ 

Left the head of Deer Creek and marched twenty miles on the slope 
of the Canadian. The first part of the road hilly and the last few miles 
of the march level. We passed today the natural mounds of Marcy and 
the Rock Mary.20 These mounds are very curious in their appearance, 
some of them presenting the shapes of sugar loaves and others pyramidal 
shapes as you approach them. They are made up of fragments of sand- 
stone and must at one time have been a high range, which the action of 
the elements has worn down in parts, leaving these natural mounds, which 
appear more strange, rising as they do from the level surface of the 
prairie. We encamped on a fine spring, the head of a branch running into 
the Canadian. 

Thursday 30th. 

Left camp and marched sixteen miles over a country rather hilly and 
abounding in extensive beds of gypsum. Thought for the first time that 
we saw buffalo. Too distant to follow. Saw many antelope and some 
deer. Encamped on a fine running creek; water very brackish, tastes most 
strongly of sulphate of magnesia. 

From August 31st. to Sept. 4th. 

During this time owing to sickness, together with the loss of my keys, 
from which latter cause I was not able to get my notes, no daily record 
of occurances has been kept. 

On the 30th of August we passed from the range of the Canadian and 
Washita, on the headwaters of the latter river. This country is a fine 
rolling prairie tract, intersected every few miles with streams, the gen- 
eral course of which is southwest. The streams are fringed with thin 
growth of trees principally oak and cotton wood, confined for the most 
part to the immediate margin of the streams. The extremes are exceed- 
ingly deceitful in their appearance. As you approach them you think to 
meet with a trifling rivulate of no difficulty to pass, but driving up on 
the prairie you find yourself all at once on the brink of a deep gully or 
canon, which defies any attempt to cross it and it is only after picking 
the most advantageous place and then by much digging down and grad- 
ing that you cross these little streams. The banks of these branches are 
of sand, sometimes consolidated to the condition of rock. Gypsum abounds 
extensively through this entire region and the water is made nauseous by 
the great amount of salts it holds in solution. The visible rock is gen- 
erally red sandstone and in one place on the principal branch of the 
Washita traces of Cretaceous formation is found. Several mounds com- 

20 Foreman, A Pathfinder in the Southwest, p. 70. Rock Mary named for Mary 
Conway of Arkansas. She was a member of the party of emigrants who accompanied 
the Marcy expedition as far as Santa Fe. 



Stanley Explores Oklahoma 



267 



posed entirely of shells occurred on our road, which seems to show that 
the chalky formations once covered this region, but that long continued 
erosion has left only these remains of the entire formation. On the 4th. 
of September, after a hard day's march, we came in sight of the Canadian, 
after having lost sight for the last hundred miles. The river here has 
the same sandy bed, I'ed muddy water and other characteristics which dis- 
tinguishes it below. Here however it is nearly destitute of trees. En- 
camped September 4th., in sight of Antelope Hills and on a small branch 
running into the Canadian. 

Monday September 4th., (5th?) 21 

Remained in camp in sight of Antelope Hills all day. Our camp is 
pleasantly situated in what appears at first sight, a great basin with a 
crest of heights rising on all sides. Tried for the first time to experiment 
of burning coal and succeeded. 

September 6th. 

Marched sixteen miles today and encamped upon the Canadian, still 
in sight of the Antelope Hills. Our men had great excitement today after 
some old buffalo bulls. Had some fine turkeys and good venison brought 
into camp for supper. Saw for the first time the cities of that little re- 
publican, the prairie dog. Scared up a huge panther in one of the ravines, 
but was unable to get a shot. Country today more generally rolling and 
sandstone white instead of red as heretofore. Water and grass scarce. 

September 7th. 

Left camp on the Canadian this morning and made a long hunt up 
the draw but without success. Having returned about ten o'clock to the 
train we were alarmed by the rapid firing of a six-shooter on the Cana- 
dian. At first we thought the Doctor was attacked by Indians, but on 
galloping near the river, I found that our Mexican Hosea, had been firing 
at buffalo and had wounded two, one of which had come to bay in the 
river. I immediately went in pursuit, and when within fifty yards, fired 
and rolled him over by a single shot. This was my first buffalo, but the 
triumph of the deed was dampened by the poorness of the prize, it being 
an old bull quite poor. We cut out his tongue and started for the train. 
When near the train we observed several mounted Comanches, stealing 
up the bed of the stream, trying to approach the train. I made them a 
sign and they came up to us after some parleying, they went with us to 
see Mr. Whipple. These gentlemen stayed but a short time with us say- 
ing they would join us at camp. They have not come in and as we have 
seen Indians all afternoon, we have reason to fear they will attempt to 
steal our mules, at any rate qui vive must be the order of the night. 

September 8th.22 

Left camp on Camanche Creek and marched on the Canadian for eigh- 
teen miles. Myself and our Mexican boy, not having the fear of Comanches 
before our eyes, hunted up the valley of the Canadian, but without success. 
At one time we had crawled upon a herd of ten or twelve deer, nearly 
close enough for a good shot, when a rascally coyote ran towards them 
and alarmed the herd. Found many excellent grapes today and camped 
at an old Indian camp, a fine romantic site on the Canadian. We have to 
the west a number of high mesas, which, we suppose, the commencement 
of the Llano Estacado, or staked plains, so named for the route marked 
out by stakes driven by the Spaniards long since. 



21/6irf., p. 75. Near Crawford in Roger Mills County. 

22/6i(f., p. 78. The expedition has crossed the state line and was now in 
Roberts County Texas. 



268 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



September 9th. 

Marched twelve miles today, on bottom of Canadian, immediately under 
the bluff. We had on the left bank of the Canadian, ranges of flat topped 
hills, running up to the water, about one hundred feet in height. Our party 
was put on the qui vive about ten o'clock upon our coming upon a very 
large, newly formed Indian trail and still more so by our seeing shortly 
afterward a herd of Indian ponies. Mr. Whipple and our Mexican to the 
advance and after going a mile, or thereabouts, we came in sight of their 
lodges, about twenty in number, on the banks of Valley Creek. We waited 
until some of our party came up. We rode towards the valley. We had 
completely surprised them — and such a commotion! The children, women 
and dogs broke for the woods, the warriors for their horses and one old 
chief came out in the innocent garb of nature, to learn our intentions. 
Having shown him the white flag he came up and embraced us, saying 
he much liked the white flag and Americans. The Doctor who I pointed 
out as a Medicine Man came in for an extra hug from this stalwart chief. 
The party arriving, we soon saw the warriors, arrayed in most hasty toilet, 
coming up to us. Some had only had time to daub a little vermillion 
on their noses, others had smeared their faces with yellow ochre. They 
had pitched on their gaudy finery in much hurry and confusion. Here 
you would see a stalwart fellow naked, except for a brilliant blanket about 
his shoulders — and again some great man in ornamented moccasins, sans 
culottes. Some had their hair fantastically plaited and a very common 
ornament was a leather strap, fastened to the hair at the crown of the 
head and falling behind to the feet, covered with silver plates circular 
in form, decreasing in size from the top to the lower one. We visited the 
camp in the evening and I was most completely disgusted with their do- 
mestic life — and felt as though I never had more reason for thanking God 
that I was born civilized. We met here some Mexicans, who had come 
among the Indians to trade but having disagreed with them, were much 
in fear of their lives and evidently very glad when they learned of the 
opportunity our party gave them of getting safely to New Mexico. 

September 10th. ' ' ! 

Was aAvakened this morning by the most annoying, to me, of voices — 
an old Indian chief of the Kiowas. who, not satisfied with the presents 
Mr. Whipple had given them yesterday, was back to beg for more. We 
started about eight o'clock and drove across the Canadian, having been 
assured by the Indian chief and one of our Mexicans that we could not 
proceed up the right bank of the river. After a heavy drive of five or 
six miles, the Doct. came across with the information that there was a 
good road on the right bank. We immediately crossed and succeeded in 
making fourteen miles still before night. We passed through a country 
of sand hills, covered with a heavy growth of short grape-vines loaded 
with grapes. We encamped on a small running creek and I lay awake 
all night tossing with the pain of a felon on the finger. 

September 11th. 

Marched twenty-one miles today. Comanches watched us during the 
day. Passed through hills on the right resembling the ones of the east. 
Comanches followed us, setting signal fires. Camped at foot of hills near 
Canadian, on a pond of water extremely salt. Unwell and suffering severed 
pain. 

Our last camp on the Canadian. Our encampment situated at the foot 
of a high red clay and sandstone bluffs, some of which were covered with 
blocks of magnesian limestone. The bottom of the Canadian becomes more 
narrow narrow here and high bluffs rise on each side. The termination of 
these bluffs are sometime extremely rugged and give evidence of being 
diluval deposit. Our travel today was through an uninteresting country. 
Our road was often to break through high, rank weeds, which you could 



Stanley Explores Oklahoma 



269 



not see over when mounted on a mule. A short grape-vine grows on this 
bottom which bears very heavily and were loaded down witli ripe grapes 
when we passed. At eleven o'clock we passed out of the Canadian bottom, 
and I experienced a feeling of delight at once more getting upon the plains, 
where the view was boundless and the eye could wander at pleasure until 
lost in distance — and at the same time I felt a feeling of regret at parting 
with our old friend the Canadian, in whose turbid, but wholesome water 
I had so often quenched my burning thirst. After a long march we as- 
cended about two hundred feet to reach the level of the plain, up a road 
exceedingly difficult of ascent — and, after a long weary day's march, came 
in sight of our Mexican and Pueblo friends. About sundown encamped 
on a fine stream of water tributary of the Canadian. I experienced more 
pain today than I have ever felt in one day in the whole course of my life. 

September 13th. 

Remained in camp today to recruit our animals and shoe the mules. 
The creek on which we camp — destitute of woods and deep and rugged, 
having rocky bottom and bluffs-rock, magnesia limestone. Nothing of 
interest occurred. An antelope ran through camp this morning. Our 
Mexicans and Pueblos remained in camp with us. 

September 14th. 

Left camp early and commenced our march westward. Our Mexican 
guide informed us that we had a long march ahead of us. We made twenty 
miles before three o'clock. The country an uninteresting prairie country, 
ascending considerably during the day's march and having many deep and 
troublesome ravines. We camped on a fine creek of water at the camp- 
ing ground, but a few days before our arrival deserted by a large band 
of Comanches. 

September 15th. 

Marched twenty miles today over a most uninteresting country. Deep 
ugly arroyas cut up the surface and our road has been a succession of 
up and down hill marches. The plains are deserted entirely of life and 
a few prairie dogs, a solitary rabbit or antelope is all that is seen of 
living. 

September 16th. 

Left camp and marched twenty miles today, having the high bluff or 
the Llano Estacado in sight on the left all day. The country we passed 
over extremely sterile, having a considerable growth of low mesquite and 
large cactacae of the abroescens species. On the right the deep ravine 
cut down to the Canadian. We encamped at the foot of the Staked Plains, 
at a fine spring of cold water. In the neighborhood abounding in good 
grapes. Here our cattle commenced giving out. 

September 17th. 

We were up and off by daylight this morning and as we passed up 
the Staked Plains we had the pleasure of welcoming the sun; at the same 
time we bid the moon goodbye . The scenery of this extensive plain is 
indeed beautiful. We here for the first time found ourselves on a per- 
fect level, or nearly level plain. As far as the eye reaches a level, beau- 
tiful plain stretches out without an object to arrest the eye, except the 
antelope which roam over this beautiful but destitute region, with noth- 
ing to disturb their peaceful existence. We here for the first time, saw 
the interesting phenomena of the mirage. Sometimes it assumes the ap- 
pearance of a burning prairie and columns of heat smoke seems ascend- 
ing from the surface of the prairie. Again you see distant objects loom- 



23 Ibid., p. 86. These men were from Santo Domingo looking for Comanches 
and Kiowas to trade with. 



270 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



ing up, having the appearance of cliffs, trees, etc. About noon today our 
train, or the leading men of the train, were stopped suddenly by the ap- 
pearance of a large number of Indians, who we suddenly came upon on 
the road. At first sight they appeared to be a large party of Comanches, 
but upon bringing up our guard and approaching them they turned out 
to be a part of Pueblos on their way to the Comanche range to trade. 
"Como tu va usted" was soon exchanged and we learned of them the nature 
of the road ahead of us, etc. One of the principal persons of the party 
was an old gray-haired Indian of a very healthy and venerable appear- 
ance, who, from his beamy and patriarchal appearance, put me in mind 
of the ancient Gauls of the school books. Encamped late at night on 
Rocky Dell Creek, just where we leave the Staked Plains. Saw many 
antelope today, had several shots but without success. 



New Hope Seminary 



271 



NEW HOPE SEMINARY 
1844-1897 

By Carolyn Thomas Foreman 

One of the most important transactions in the history of the 
Choctaw Nation took place just one hundred years ago when New 
Hope Academy was established, for this important school for girls 
in the nation added immeasurably to the advancement of the Choc- 
taw people. The subject of education being of prime importance 
among the Choctaws, a school system was established in 1841. For 
many years the most celebrated Indian school in the United States 
bore the name of Choctaw Academy, although it was situated in 
Kentucky at a great distance from the home of these Indians and 
was patronized by lads of many other tribes. 

Ten Mission schools were established by the American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions in the Choctaw Nation between 
1832 and 1837 ; but it was not until 1844 that the Methodist Church 
established Fort Coffee Academy for boys and contracted for New 
Hope Academy for girls. Authority for the two schools is incltided 
in Constitution and Laws of the Choctaw Nation, Session IX - - - 
1842. Six thousand dollars per annum were allotted from the in- 
terest arising from Chickasaw funds, agreeable to the treaty con- 
cluded between the two tribes at Doaksville in January, 1837. 

New BEope Academy, under the conditions, limitations and re- 
strictions of the act of the council, was to be placed under the man- 
agement of the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
provided, it contributed one thousand dollars per annum to the in- 
stitution. Girl pupils were restricted to the ages of eight to four- 
teen, and no family was permitted to place more than one child in 
the boarding schools.^ 

New Hope was located a mile from Choctaw Agency which 
afterward became known as SkuUyville, because annuities were paid 
to the Choctaws at that place. The situation of the academy, ap- 
propriately named New Hope, "was an elevated plain, covered with 
a thrifty growth of young oaks, wild and beautiful, near a spring 
of pure, cold water . . . isolated and lonely, with but one indif- 
ferent Indian cabin in sight, which was untenanted most of the 
time." AVhen the Quakers, John D .Lang and Samuel Taylor, Jr., 
made their Report of a Visit to Some Tribes of Indian Located 
West of the Mississippi River, they narrated that the Choctaw Gen- 



1 Constitution and Laws of the Choctaw Nation, New York, 1869, pp. 79, 82. 



272 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



eral Council had decided to establish two manual labor schools on 
an extensive plan.^ One was to be situated on Red River and the 
other at the abandoned Fort Coffee on the Arkansas, in Moshula- 
tubbee District. These men noted with interest that an important 
feature of the scheme was that the female children were to have a 
school several miles distant from the boys' school. Eighteen thou- 
sand dollars had been appropriated for the support of the schools. 

The Choetaws realized the need of education for the future 
mothers when their sons, on returning from schools in the East, 
united their lives with uneducated young women who were lacking 
in culture. A few Choctaw girls had been educated in the homes 
of missionaries or in small schools conducted by teachers sent out 
by the American Board of Missions, and when those young women 
were married they managed their homes in such an orderly manner 
that they contrasted strikingly with those of some of their neighbors. 

There had evidently been a school at the place where New Hope 
was built, as The Constitution and Laws of the Choctaw Nation 
recited that "The Female . . . Academy is called New Hope at 
the old school house where Mr. Wilson formerly taiight school, about 
one mile from Choctaw Agency."^ New Hope was a branch of the 
male academy under the same su.perintendency, and from every 
standpoint it would appear that it would have been better to have 
the schools near each other, if not in the same grounds. "The old 
sachems of the tribe, however, when met in council to determine 
on the location, were possessed of a terrible dread of the dangers 
attending a male and a female school in near proximity with each 
other. . 

Two one-story frame buildings, each one hundred feet long, 
with broad piazzas on either side, were built for the school; they 
were parallel to each other and were located about a hundred feet 
apart. The plan, inconvenient and expensive, was apparently modeled 
after the barracks at Fort Coffee. The structures, rudely con- 
structed, remained unpainted inside and on the outer surface. They 
were divided into dormitories, school room, dining room and kitchen. 
At Fort Coffee the buildings had stone chimneys with large fire- 
places which gave the rooms sufficient warmth and a cheerful ap- 
pearance, but at New Hope open stoves were used which did not 
heat the rooms and smoked in a most annoying way. 

The school was inclosed with about two acres of land, in the 
form of a square, by a high picket fence. "The forest trees re- 
mained in the inclosure as nature had arranged them, not a foot of 



2 Providence, 1843. 

3 Park Hill, Cherokee Nation, 1847. 

*Rev. William Graham, "Frontier Sketches", The Ladies' Repository, (Cin- 
cinnati, 1864), Vol. XXIV, p. 411. 



J^ew Hope Seminary 



273 



ground being cleared away for the cultivation of fruit or flowers. 
The whole aspect was wild and romantic, and the singing birds built 
their nests and warbled forth their sweet and cheerful songs at our 



The Reverend W. L. McAlister, first superintendent of New 
Hope Mission, sent his report for 1846 to Colonel William Arm- 
strong, superintendent of the "Western Territory, from Fort Coffee 
Academy on August 1, saying that New Hope closed July 25. Mr. 
McKenney, chief of the district, was the only trustee present at the 
examinations. Some of the captains "and other officiaries of the 
nation," with guardians, parents and friends were in attendance. 
Test books used at both schools included Goodrich Readers, Ray's 
Arithmetic, Kirkham's prose or poetry lessons, Mitchell's Geography, 
Noah Webster's dictionary. Mr. McAlister considered it a mistake 
to send pupils as old as those then in the school. "They are con- 
firmed m habits opposing close application, either in or out of 
schools; and I am decidedly of the opinion that neither they or the 
nation will ever realize much, though they spend even a series of 
years at the school. Better a thousand times for the nation that 
they send us children, by 7io means over fifteen years." 

Six or seven acres were cultivated at New Hope to supply food. 
The girls rendered great service to the boys at Port Coffee by mak- 
ing about one hundred pairs of trousers, shirts, and knitting many 
pairs of socks ; besides making much of their own clothing. This 
was in line with the plans of Rev. William H. Goode, superinten- 
dent of Fort Coffee. He wrote in his Outposts of Zion that by 
careful economy the finances were in a condition that would justify 
commencing operations in the "Female department".*' He com- 
plained of the distance between the two establishments increasing 
their labors and expenses, but it had been determined "so to con- 
nect the interests and labors of the two as to render them mutually 
subservient to each other's support and advancement." Pie received 
proposals and finally let a contract for the erection of the two build- 
ings at New Hope, but his connection with the school terminated 
before the buildings were finished. 

Henry C. Benson, superintendent at Fort Coffee, related that 
the principal preaching places for the Methodists in the Choctaw 
Nation were at Fort Coffee, New Hope, Pheasant Bluff and the 
Council Ground. He and Mr. Goode had an arrangement by which 
one of them met John Page at New Hope to assist him in the 
services. One of the clergymen would preach a short discourse in 
English, to be followed by Page in Choctaw when he would give 
the substance of the sermon, followed by prayer in the language of 
the people. Mr. Benson said that Page was a full-blood "with no 

5 Ibid. 

6 Cincinnati, 1863. 



doors. . . . 



"5 




274 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



special love for half-breeds or mongrel races." He once said: "I 
no want to be rich; I no want farm; I no want to be chief; I no 
want big name; I want religion — religion jxist suit me. I want to 
be Christian, and full-blooded Methodist." 

In May, 1845, Mr. Benson wrote that the New Hope buildings 
were enclosed and would be ready to receive pupils at the begin- 
ning of the autumn session. He said that they had substantial 
frames and were planned for the manual labor system of instruc- 
tion. The girls were to be taught plain and fancy sewing, cooking, 
dairy and laundry work as well as "the mysteries of housekeeping 
in general. ' ' Mr. Goode went to Cincinnati after his connection with 
the school terminated, and while in that city he bought furnishings 
for the institution. Doctor and Mrs. E. G. Meek had been se- 
lected to manage New Hope.'^ 

When William Graham was in charge of the school there were 
some thirty Indian girls of various ages from ten to eighteen at 
New Hope ; they were lodged, boarded and clothed on the premises. 
Most of them were fuU-blood Indians, but a few were part white, 
and he noted that the Indian features remained prominent even if 
the skin was almost white. He described the Choctaw women as 
"less comely and symmetrical in figure than the males. They are 
generally low in stature and heavy, with short neck and broad across 
the shoulders. Their face is round and the expression somewhat 
dull, but the outlines are smooth and not unattractive. ' ' He thought 
them not inferior to the men in interest; they were "shy and re- 
served, but not timid; taciturn rather than loquacious, and some- 
what sullen." Their manners were stately and they were delib- 
erate in their movements. "Vfhoever imagines them fickle and 
easily moved, will soon learn his mistake."* 

In the intervals between school hours the students were in 
charge of a matron who taught them cooking and other domestic 
duties. The kitchen and laundry were in charge of "Aunt Hetty", 
but were inspected by the matron. "Aunt Hetty" was a character; 
a tall, raw-boned, homely mulatto about forty years of ago. She 
was intelligent, and having been raised as a slave among the Choc- 
taws she spoke their language fluently and was "well acquainted 
with their peculiarities, tricks, and turns, but she also partook of 
them largely herself . . . Being the only servant at the place she 
became our factotum, and we had to depend on her even for inter- 
preter, in which position she appeared to a surprisingly good ad- 
vantage." The little girls were under the impression that "Aunt 
Hetty" had charge of New Hope and made aU of their requests 
to her, while the older students used her as messenger and mediator 

''Henry C. Benson, Life Among the Choctaw Indians (Cincinnati, 1860), pp. 184, 
225, 297. 

8 Graham, op. cit., p. 412. 



New Hope Seminary 



275 



with the missionaries. Mr. Graham thought her the most important 
person at the mission as she did more to govern the students than 
the teacher or matron. 

The routine at New Hope on Sunday was the same as at the 
boys' school; Sunday school was held at nine o'clock, preaching at 
eleven and prayer meeting in the evening. More than a few of the 
pupils were converted and united with the Methodist Church. The 
Sabbath services were well attended by people from the agency 
and SkuUyville, and also by Indian families in the vicinity. The 
merchant's family at the trading post were well educated, refined, 
and possessed the orderly habits and morals of New Englanders in 
vivid contrast to the reckless habits of some of the other white peo- 
ple. The Indian agent, a devout Presbyterian, had formerly been 
principal of Spencer Academy which was managed by the Choctaw 
Council. He had succeeded to his position after the death of Cap- 
tain William Armstrong, but was soon ousted by politicians. 

A regular exchange of products was maintained between Fort 
Coffee Academy and New Hope, much to the benefit of both schools ; 
garments made by the girls supplied the wardrobe for the youths, 
while the latter furnished vegetables, corn and hominy for the tables 
at New Hope. This exchange stimulated great interest and indus- 
try in both places. As it was necessary to send the heavier articles 
by wagon once a week, there was rivalry among the lads to be 
chosen to drive the ox team; there was excitement among the girls 
when the farm products were expected, and they worked hard to 
have everything in order as the boys remained for dinner. Some 
of the boys had sisters at New Hope, and they were envied by the 
other students as they were allowed to visit the girls occasionally. 

Quarterly meetings, held alternately at Fort Coffee and New 
Hope, were attended on Sundays by students from both schools. 
The minister wrote that there was always the best order maintained, 
some fine dressing and the visiting students were always entertained 
at dinner. As there were not enough tables in the dining room to 
accommodate all of the students from both schools at one time, the 
visiting students always ate first. 

During the winter it was sometimes necessary to set apart a 
day for the lads to get fire wood for New Hope, and the boys set 
about the task with great glee, knowing that they were to be re- 
warded with a special dinner at which the young ladies would wait 
upon them.^ 

"In sharp contrast to their Arkansas neighbors, the Choctaws 
appropriated money freely for the education of their children. . . . 
In a girls' school superintended by a Methodist clergyman, the 



^Ibid., pp. 413, 414. 



276 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



sixty pupils all slept in a long hall. Sometimes at the dead of night 
one would strike up a sacred hymn; one by one the little sleepers 
would wake and join her, until the building rang with their voices." 
Then some small girl, in her night gown, would mount a chair for 
a religious exhortation, and other children would take up the service 
until the groans, shrieks and sobs resembled a camp meeting. On 
other nights some girl would start a low chant, and one by one the 
sleeping children would arouse and join her until all roared forth 
the old war whoop of their tribe. The teachers were unable to stop 
these midnight performances even by whipping. The girls were re- 
ported to acquire language readily, they were intelligent and in 
average capacity were equal to white children.^" 

From Fort Coffee Academy, on July 30, 1848, Superintendent 
McAlister sent Col. S. M. Rutherford, acting superintendent of In- 
dian Affairs in Western Territory, a report of conditions at the 
Methodist schools. The examination at New Hope took place on 
June 28, a day later than the one at Fort Coffee. The affairs were 
more numerously attended by parents and friends which argued an 
increased interest in education by the Choctaws. The girls were 
tested in spelling, reading, arithmetic, geography, and grammar, 
and the missionary reported that the students far surpassed the 
most sanguine expectations. "Indeed many of the children in our 
schools manifest a capacity to receive a finished education. . . . 
it is due our teachers to say that they have laboured hard and 
constantly to advance the children, and appear determined in fu- 
ture, to do even more if possible." Ninety -five children were taught 
during the session; eighty-five of the students were furnished with 
board, clothing and all supplies. Some fine specimens of handwork 
were shown on examination.^^ 

The report sent by Rutherford to Commissioner of Indian Af- 
fairs W. Medill in October, 1848, said the examination given the 
female institution at New Hope gave full, complete, and entire satis- 
faction. "It has elicited public opinion strongly in its favor, and 
rendered the teachers universally popular with all, and especially 
so with those having children at it." At that period Mr. and Mrs. 
Maris were the teachers, and Miss Carter was responsible for the 
good conduct of the girls out of school when she instructed them 
in general domestic occupations. "It is not too much praise to say 
that the care and responsibility with which she has been charged 
was efficiently and well performed, and that the garments exhibited 
. . . were well and skilfully made." 



1" Albert D. Richardson, Beyond the Mississippi (Hartford, Conn., 1867), p. 

222. 

11 Office of Indian Affairs: School File R 343. Choctaw Agency, 1848. Copied 
from pages 290, 291, Vol. 7, Foreman Transcripts, Oklahoma Historical Society. 



New Hope Seminary 



277 



At the age of 112, Mrs. Elizabeth Jacobs Quinton, a one-eighth 
Choctaw, visited the home of the writer and related her experiences 
while a pupil at New Hope. She was fourteen when her family 
emigrated to the "West and settled between Fort Smith and Skully- 
ville. New Hope Mission was eight miles from her home, and her 
parents sent her to school there. Her account, carefully reported 
by a stenographer, was as follows : 

"We had to make pants and coats — had to make all of the shirts 
for the boys at Fort Coffee. 

"Old Man McAlister was principal of New Hope . . . The boys 
dassent come over to our school. No man person was ever allowed 
to come near our place. "We went to school in the morning and 
then in the afternoon till about two o'clock, and then the seam- 
stress would call us up to the third floor. The teachers at the school 
were all women ... I don't remember the names, the last names. 
"We called them by their first names ; there was Miss Carrie, and Miss 
Helen Steele, who taught the big class. It wasn't a big school. 
About 198 . . . They had five teachers and four seamstresses who 
taught us to knit and sew. They made us do it right. If it wasn't 
right they made us rip it out. I've seen the girls have a sock al- 
most done and the teacher would make her ravel it all out. Same 
way with the sewing . . . We made bed clothes, sheets and pillow 
cases. The girls all quilted after the seamstress would mark out 
the patterns with a saucer. Each girl would do her best and the 
best one got a premium. 

"The first session we all liked to have starved, till the people 
got to cuttin' up about it, and after that we had plenty. They 
raised all of our food, vegetables, hogs, most everything. We learned 
how to do all kinds of work, take care of everything . . . 

"During the week we went to church every night. On Sunday 
we went at eleven, at three, and again at night. We had to study 
every week night. There was a big bell, and when they pulled the 
rope we all knew what that meant. Every Friday evening four 
of the girls were chosen to cook, four to wash, and four for this and 
four for something else. We'd have to do the work all week, that 
is the big girls would. The little girls carried water to the rooms 
from the well or fine spring. We changed every Friday so that 
we could all learn how to do all kinds of work. The school build- 
ing was of stone — it's all gone now." 

Speaking of how carefully the girls were trained in deport- 
ment, Mrs. Quinton said: "We were not allowed to laugh out loud, 
those big horse laughs like the girls do now." The pupils were 
not permitted to speak Choctaw and it was difficult for the children 
as most of them knew no English. "If they talked Choctaw they 
gave them a teaspoonful of red pepper ..." 



278 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



For examinations the girls stood on a large stage to say their 
lessons. According to Mrs. Quinton, they wore a different colored 
dress for each subject: "We wore green with our grammar lessons 
and for the next class we all put on another colored dress. There 
were rooms right up the stairs and we would step into another room 
and all come out on the stage again with a different colored dress 
on." This was a clever way to display the work the students had 
accomplished during the session. 

"We said our lessons on the stage and the people sat out in 
the yard on the ground or on chairs. The parents came and lots of 
people who did not have girls in the school came also ..." After 
the examinations were finished, a big dinner was served in the 
yard on a long table, and after all of the good food was consumed 
school was dismissed until the new term in September. 

Mrs. Quinton related that the small girls wore their hair cut 
short, and the larger ones had braids hanging down their backs 
with a ribbon bow on the end. 

"My father was a Choctaw named Levi Jacobs. My mother's 
name was Rebecca Carroll. The people who lived at Scullyville were 
Col. Tandy Walker and Lanier and Massey. There was a cake shop 
there. No, it was not a bakery, just a cake shop where the woman 
made cakes and cookies, big ginger cakes. Her name was McDonald. 
There was a blacksmith shop there. Massey was a merchant, and 
Tebold also had a store, and old man Hale, also Nansley and Mein- 
hardt. Bob Jones [Robert M.] had a store at Scullyville; he was 
a well-to-do man and a good person. He wasn't what I would call 
a rich man — owned seven slaves. He had three stores, one at Scully- 
ville and I think one at Doaksville. ..." 

Mrs. Quinton described Choctaw Agent William Armstrong as 
a "tall, light-complected man; had kind of auburn hair who wore 
a moustache and sideburns for a while. He was a nice man to do 
business -with. The Choctaws all liked and respected him highly. 
Peter Pitchlyn was an educated man; pretty smart man, but wasn't 
many people fancied him much." 

The scourge of cholera invaded the Indian country in 1849, and 
fear of the disease was so great that the trustees of the Methodist 
schools ordered them closed on April 19. McAlister reported to 
Colonel John Drennen, superintendent of Indian affairs, that New 
Hope had done very well, and it was confidently believed that had 
school continued it would have shown an improvement on previous 
years. ' ' Some of the children are respectable in tlie primary branches, 
a few rather more advanced. . . . Whether it is the better policy 
to give the children more than a business education, and thereby 
afford a like favor to a greater number of children, I leave others 
to judge." The missionary reported much illness during the past 



New Hope Seminary 



279 



season. One of the teachers, Dr. R. S. Williams, had been very 
successful, and to him and the other instructors the school owed its 
prosperity.^2 

In 1850 John Harrell was transferred from the Arkansas Con- 
ference by Bishop Robert Paine and put in charge of Fort Coffee 
and New Hope academies where he remained four years as super- 
intendent. For one year, 1854-1855, he was presiding elder of Choc- 
taw District, and he returned in the same capacity in 1869. The 
Reverend Mr. Harrell died at Vinita, Cherokee Nation, December 
8, 1876, and the Committee of Memoirs of the Methodist Church 
made a report of his life and services the next year. This document, 
signed by Young EAving, J. F. Thompson, W. A. Duncan and B. R, 
Shapard, was a beautiful tribute to the missionary who had de- 
voted twenty-seven years to improve the condition of the Indians. 

A comprehensive report of the state of affairs at New Hope 
Seminary made by Trustee Edmund McCurtain from Red Oak, 
March 10, 1877, was published in The McAlester Star-Vindicator, 
March 24, 1877. 

Nathaniel M. Talbott made the report in 1852 to Agent William 
Wilson. The school opened on October 1, 1851, and closed July 7 
the following year. The examination was well attended and the 
visitors expressed entire satisfaction with the progress shown by the 
students in spelling, reading, writing, arithmetic, geography and 
grammar. Three quilts nicely pieced, shirts, coats and pants were 
on exhibition, and Talbott said that as opportunity presented the 
department of domestic economy would be enlarged. 

When the Misses Mary H. P. Talbott and Elizabeth Tramell 
were in charge of New Hope, they were said to have been "diligent, 
have spared no means, and left untried no auxiliary, that might 
facilitate the advancement of the girls." Miss Frances SaA\T^ers, 
engaged in teaching sewing, had performed her part well. "The 
year that is past and gone has been one of deep suffering and af- 
fliction. The pneumonia and measles, through all the year, has 
raged throughout the school, and the teachers embarrassed in their 
progress." The missionaries were cheered and encouraged by the 
presence of the chief and Indian agent at the closing ceremonies. 

In the absence of the Reverend Mr. Talbott from New Hope, 
Thompson McKenny, trustee of the Choctaw public schools, and 

12 Report, Commissioner Indian affairs, 1849, p. 1109. "Jesse S. McAlister was 
received on trial in the Indian Mission Conference in 1847, and appointed to the 
New Hope Female School and Station. In 1849 he was transferred to the Arkansas 
Conference." After being connected with several colleges in Arkansas, he died in 
1864. He was said to be a preacher of superior ability, noted for his amiable dis- 
position and fine social qualities, and recognized as a superior educator. — Horace 
Jewell, History of Methodism in Arkansas, (Little Rock, 1892), p. 184. 

13 Report, Commissioner of Indian affairs, 1852, p. 416. 



280 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



the Reverend "W. L. McAlister, presiding elder of the Choctaw dis- 
trict, sent a report of New Hope to Choctaw Agent Douglas Cooper, 
on August 29, 1853, stating that the past year had been one of 
more suffering than any since the school commenced operations. 
Early in the session their beloved teacher, Mary Talbott, died, and 
half of the fifty students suffered from pneiimonia and whooping 
cough; four children died, and others were brought to the brink of 
the grave, and it was only by unflagging care by the superintendent 
and teacher that their lives were spared. 

On October 1, 1853, Talbott wrote that the girls at New Hope 
were "taught with equally as much care and success in the domestic 
as in the scientific department. We instruct the hands to work, 
and work properly, as well as the mind to think, and think prop- 
erly. " The department showed unmistakable evidences of improve- 
ment and there were samples of sewing that would put to blush the 
best efforts of white girls trained under the eyes of eastern seam- 
stresses. 

The next session of New Hope started with fifty-four students, 
btit death again invaded, and there were only forty-two when school 
closed July 6, 1854. Seven girls died — three of tuberculosis, one of 
dropsy, two of typhoid fever, and one of congestion of the brain. 
Evidently Mr. Talbott had become discouraged, as he announced 
that he was leaving the school so his family could have more of the 
comforts of life, and he be where he would have "greater privileges 
in preaching the Gospel." 

Miss Ellen N. Steele, Miss E. Poster were the teachers, and 
Miss Elizabeth Sorrels had charge of the domestic economy depart- 
ment. Talbott reported: "I take pleasure in saying there were many 
intelligent natives . . . who expressed themselves highly pleased 
with the marked improvement of many of the pupils. It is true, 
however, a few self -conceited persons, who think nothing is well 
done unless they do it, or it is done according to their whims, were 
disposed to murmur ; but fault-finding, discontented poor souls are 
found everywhere. ' ' The Reverend John Page, interpreter for Agent 
Cooper, visited New Hope almost weekly, and Talbott thought him 
a reliable man."^* 

Presiding Elder McAlister advised Douglas H. Cooper, in Oc- 
tober, 1854, that greater success would result in the Methodist schools 
if the number of students were reduced by half; he suggested send- 
ing the younger children to the neighborhood schools and "not 
burden these academies with little boys and girls that you are com- 
pelled to nurse almost literally for a long time before they are any- 
thing like prepared to enter an academy." He proposed applying 



Report, Commissioner of Indian affairs, 1854, p. 146. 



New Hope Seminary 



281 



to the general council and tlie board of missions of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South to make the change.i^ 

Trustees and other guests were present when New Hope closed 
on June 28, 1855. Arithmetic had not been taught during that bcs- 
sion, as Superintendent McAlister thought the girls were too young. 
Spelling, First Reader, geography and writing occupied the time of 
the pupils Avho were also engaged in making clothes for the boys 
at Fort Coffee as well as their own garments. The faithful teachers 
were Misses Steele and Sorrels. The latter exhibited with pride 
handsome shirts and numerous articles of fancy work made by her 
students. A new teacher had been added to the staff that year 
in the person of Miss Crocket. Four young Choctaw women had been 
sent in 1854 to schools of higher learning in Tennessee and Missis- 
sippi to be educated gratuitously by the Methodist Episcopal Church 
South. 

From forty to forty-five pupils attended New Hope during the 
next term, and Superintendent T. W. Mitchell considered them a 
very promising set of girls who were regular in attendance, orderly 
in conduct and proficient in their studies. He reported that some 
of the larger students did honor to themselves and their teachers 
in grammar and geography. Good health among teachers and In- 
dians was remarked, although three of the girls died — two of typhus 
fever in November. A vivid account of the death of one girl was 
given by the superintendent in his report. "A short time before 
she died she would say 'my sense is not gone yet.' 'Now,' said 
she, 'I am dying.' 'Tell my uncle when he comes tomorrow that 
I am dead and gone to heaven.' " The third was a sister-in-law 
of the Reverend D. W. Lewis; she was an intelligent young woman 
whose death was lamented by all who knew her.^'' 

When Bishop George F. Pierce made an Episcopal journey in 
the Indian Territory in the autumn of 1855, he was accompanied 
part of the time by "Brother McAlister". On October 15 they 
left North Fork Town for the Choctaw Agency, spending a night 
in a one-room house of a Choctaw family Avhich the Bisiiop de- 
scribed as neat and comfortable. The Indians understood English, 
but the missionaries were unable to get one word of that language 
out of them ; when they left the following morning Bishop Pierce 
inquired "What do I pay you?" and the Choctaw replied, ''Two 
dollar. ' ' 

Bishop Pierce described McAlister as full of dry, sly humor, 
and he added much to the interest of the long, hard journey. "Early 
in the afternoon we reached Scullyville, the Choctaw Agency. Here 
is quite a village — stores and private dwellings. We stopped a while. 



i5/6iU, 147. 

16 Report, Commissioner Indian affairs, 1856, p. 154. 



282 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



and a glance at the interior of the trading establishments satisfied 
me that the merchants knew how to cater to the tastes of their cus- 
tomers. All the gaudiest colors known in the world of calico flash 
upon the eye, and are displayed in the most tempting form. 

"A mile or two more brought us to New Hope Academy, where 
we proposed to rest a day or two to examine the school and to 
visit the school at Fort Coffee. . ." The Bishop was fortunate in 
being present at the time the agent paid the annuity, and he de- 
scribed the scene most graphically. "The Indians were assembled 
in crowds. Such a company of men, squaws, papooses, ponies, I 
never saw before. . . . There was the Christian Indian dressed 
like the white man; there was the half -civilized, an odd combination 
of the apparel of the two races, and here was the genuine man of 
the woods, strutting in the costume of his ancestors — hunting shirt, 
buckskin leggings, moccasins, and all. I saw one magnificent- 
looking fellow; he had the step of a chief, the air of a king; and 
he moved about as if he felt himself to be the embodiment of every 
thing which had been the glory of an Indian. . . . face painted, scalp- 
lock on the crown of the head, bow and arrows swung upon the 
back." 

At New Hope the good Bishop heard classes in several subjects, 
made a little speech, prayed and bade them farewell. ' ' These schools, 
well managed, will do wonders for this people in the progress of 
time. We must wait, pray, and hope. 

In the 1857 report Mitchell gave a few personal facts concern- 
ing himself and the staff of New Hope, which was composed en-^ 
tirely of citizens of Tennessee recruited in Missouri. Mitchell was 
forty-one; he was appointed November 1 1855, and received $600 
a year; Mrs. Mitchell, six years younger than her husband, was the 
seamstress, and she was paid $100 per annum; Miss M. A. Mather, 
principal teacher, was employed September 1, 1856, at a salary of 
$300.; the assistant teacher. Miss S. A. Mather, arrived at New 
Hope the same date, and she was paid $150 a year. These two 
teachers were only twenty-five and twenty-one years old. 

Fifty girls, from seven to eighteen years of age, were in at- 
tendance, and the Choctaw Nation taxed itself $6,000 out of the 
annuities, and received $1,000 from the Methodist Church. Mitchell 
thought the Indians were eager to educate their children, especially 
their daughters. He considered the Choctaws very civil, said they 
were improving in industry. Most of them had fairly comfortable 
homes; they were temperate, with a few exceptions; the majority 



1^ George G. Smith, The Life and Times of George Foster Pierce, D.D, LL.D., 
(Nashville, 1888), pp. 232-237. 



New Hope Seminary 



283 



followed farming and their principal commerce was in ponies, beef 
cattle and hogs.^* 

The Reverend F. M. Paine, first teacher and physician at the 
Chickasaw Manual Labor Academy in 1857, was appointed super- 
intendent of Fort Coffee and New Hope academies October 11, 1858. 
The two schools had been in a temporary state of suspension, by 
order of Acting Trustee McCurtain, until the new superintendent 
arrived with his family and a corps of teachers, on November 7 ; 
he notified the trustee that they were prepared for the reception of 
pupils, and school was opened November 29, 1858. 

It had been decided to limit the students to fifty; but some 
were removed because of sickness, others ran away, so the number 
was not maintained. Paine considered that the girls had demeaned 
themselves well, "have made proficiency in aU their studies," as 
well as in the domestic department which was directed by Mrs. 
Paine "in person". The staff was made up of Mrs. M. J. Scannell, 
principal; Miss Zorade Bruce, assistant; and Mrs. Jane Guymon, in 
charge of sewing. 

An unusually large concourse of patrons and friends attended 
the examination exercises and "... the trustee, Hon. R. McCur- 
tain, who discharged his duties faithfully and expressed himself as 
being well pleased with the . . . improvement made by the girls." 
The fancy work shown by proud pupils would have done credit 
to any class of girls of a similar age. There had been some illness 
in the school, but no deaths, and the session had been most har- 
monious and pleasant. 

Governor Basil L. LeFlore, on October 24, 1859, approved an 
act recommended by a committee composed of Joseph Dukes, Cor- 
nelius McCurtain, Jack Shotubbe, Capt. John Anderson and Jack- 
son McCurtain, by which three thousand dollars were to be paid 
to Superintendent Paine, to enable him to pay the debts owed by 
New Hope Academy. It appeared that a large part of the first ap- 
propriation for the academies had been applied to annuity pur- 
poses, after the contract had been made with the Methodist Board.^** 

The two academies opened the first Wednesday in October, 1859, 
with every prospect of a successful year; the pupils arrived in good 
health, and there was a full corps of teachers ; but about three weeks 
after the beginning of the term whooping cough spread through the 
school and continued all winter; there were other diseases, and one 
pupil died. The school was suspended by advice of the trustee, the 
first of March, when the measles appeared in the neighborhood; 

18 Report, Comrriissioner Indian affairs, 1857, pp. 532-33. 
'^^ Report, Commissioner Indian affairs, 1859, pp. 564-65. 

20 Choctaw National Council, No. 18301, p. 48. Indian Archives Division, Okla- 
homa Historical Society. 



284 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



the Choctaws became apprehensive and wistied. their children at home, 
where some of them contracted the disease ; other students had measles 
after the school was resumed on May 1, and there were still cases 
in June. Mrs. Molloy, the principal, probably overworked, "so de- 
clined in health that she was compelled to give up teaching" in 
April, and retired. Miss Virginia Tacldtt of Van Buren, Arkansas, 
became principal when the academy reopened, and acquitted herself 
to the satisfaction of all concerned. The annual examination, held 
on July 5, made use of Davies' Arithmetic, Mitchell's Geography, 
and Parley's Universal History. 

The financial status of New Hope was greatly relieved by the 
action of the general council ; the buildings were in a delapidated 
condition, the farm and apparatus generally run down so that there 
was a continual necessity of making repairs and buying implements. 
Dr. Paine made a supplemental report to Agent Cooper on September 
14, 1860, in which he gave his age as thirty-eight, his birthplace as 
Tennessee, and that he had received his appointment from the pre- 
siding bishop of the Indian Mission Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South. Miss M. C. Paine, seventeen, and prob- 
ably his daughter, was born in Missouri. Mrs. M. J. Molloy, a native 
of Ohio, was twenty-five. Paine had employed several other white 
persons at different times during the session.^^ 

The general council passed an act authorizing the Governor 
to appoint two suitable persons to make a full and complete settle- 
ment with the proper representatives of the American Methodist 
Missionary Board in all affairs pertaining to the New Hope and 
Port Coffee academies ; the persons appointed were to have power 
to receive and execute a receipt for the nation and a report was 
to be rendered to the General Council. The act was approved on 
October 15, 1862, by Z. Harrison, Principal Chief, pro. tem.^^ 

Some Choctaws living in the neighborhood of SkuUyville, be- 
coming" discouraged with the alliance with the Confederacy, held 
a convention at New Hope in the spring of 1864, and tried to re- 
pudiate the stand of their nation during the Civil War. The fac- 
tion set up a provisional government headed by Thomas Edwards 
and other officials but their movement was not recognized by the 
Federal government.^* 



21 Report, Commissioner Indian affairs, 1860, pp. 365-68. F. M; Paine, of the 
Arkansas Conference, became a traveling preacher in 1872 and was still at work 
in 1877, according to Horace Jewell, History of Methodism (Little Rock, 1892), 
p. 428. 

'^'^ Choctaw National Council, No. 18304, Indian Archives Division, Oklahoma 
Historical Society. 

23 Chronicles of Oklahoma, "Historic Places on the Old Stage Line from Fort 
Smith to Red River", by Muriel H. Wright, June, 1933, p. 818. 



New Hope Seminary 



283 



Because of the unsettled condition of the Indian country dur- 
ing the Civil War, many of the Cherokees left their nation and 
went south, and they were afraid to return home for several years. 
The Eeverend Thomas B. Ruble, of the Methodist Church, wrote 
an article for the Fort Smith Herald, June 6, 1867, signed OB- 
SERVER, in which he reported that several Cherokee families and 
other people were occupying the old school buildings at New Hope. 

On June 7, 1871, Colonel Campbell Leflore of SkuUyville and 
Miss Ida L. Tibbetts of Providence, Rhode Island, were married at 
New Hope by the Reverend J. Y. Bryce who had become superin- 
tendent of the academy.^* 

New Hope was the first boarding school for girls reopened after 
the Civil War in the Choctaw Nation. A contract was entered into 
by Forbis LePlore and the Methodist Church South on July 25, 
1871, by which the church agreed to assume charge of the academy, 
furnish a superintendent and teachers; board, clothe and teach fifty 
pupils.^^ 

The Reverend John Harrell, superintendent of the Indian Mis- 
sion Conference, acting on behalf of the Board of Missions, agreed 
that the church would pay salaries of the superintendent and teachers 
as well as their expenses to and from the Choctaw Nation ; medical 
supplies and everything else necessary for the comfort of the pupils 
was to be furnished. 

The General Council, on November 2, 1870, set apart five thou- 
sand dollars to be paid in quarterly installments for running the 
school, and two thousand dollars was placed in the hands of the 
superintendent of public schools for repairs on the building and 
for the purchase of necessary furniture. The superintendent agreed 
to furnish a full statement of the expenditures of the school, and 
the condition of the seminary at the end of each session. The agree- 
ment was to continue for ten years, and it was agreed that when 
circumstances Avarranted, the number of students should be increased 
to sixty.2^ 

In "Memories of my Childhood" by Emma Ervin Christian, 
she relates how thrilled she was to start in a covered wagon from 
her farm home, three and a half miles from Doaksville, in the latter 
part of August, 1871, to enter school at New Hope. The party in 
which she traveled was made up of her father,Mrs. William Byrd, 
whose husband became governor of the Chickasaw Nation, an orphan 
girl of the name of Carrie Stewart, a hired boy and young Emma 

24 Fort Smith Herald, June 17, 1871, p. 2, col. 6. 

^Report, Cominissioner Indian affairs, 1871, p. 618; Angie Debo, "Education 
in the Choctaw Country after the Civil War", Chronicles of Oklahoma, June 1932, 
p. 385. 

26 Indian Archives Division, OHS, Choctaw-New Hope Seminary, No. 19878. 



176 



Leslie M. Scott 



White immigration was thereafter agumented in Cahfornia 
by the Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads, that year 
completed, and in Oregon by large expenditure of money for 
railroads by Ben Holladay. In that same year politicians in 
Oregon, as well as in California, were making campaign 
against "Chinese cheap labor," among them Grover,!^ then 
running first time for Governor. Against their assertion that 
Chinese "add nothing to the wealth of the country," Mr. Scott 
showed that the aliens had cleared large land areas for crops 
and were building railroads for use of the white population. 
Their number on the Pacific Coast— less than forty thousand, 
and few in Oregon — was, as yet, no menace to the white race 
and was contributing large capital, by its labor, to the uses of 
the country. "Every Chinaman leaves the products of his labor, 
a full equivalent for the wages paid him. He leaves more ; he 
leaves the profit which his employer has made in the cheap 
labor he has furnished" (July 7, 1869). Often Mr. Scott told 
the white people that the Pacific Coast was slow in industrial 
progress because there were not enough workers ; that Chinese 
were not snatching places from white men because they were 
doing work white men would not do ; that the surfeit of white 
laborers in San Francisco, the center of agitation, did not exist 
elsewhere and that most of the work to be performed was out- 
side the cities ; that the aliens had done much to make Oregon 
and Washington habitable for white men, especially in clearing 
land — a work too hard and cheap for white laborers ; that they 
had been employed in this and other activities also because of 
scarcity and indolence of the whites. 

But the Editor was prompt also to say that while Chinese 
were useful for labor, they could not be received in large num- 
bers into American citizenship ; that the two races were antag- 
onistic, ethnically, politically, industrially. He asserted that 
however much Chinese industry would stimulate growth of the 
country, it was better to have peace. "They are not an assimil- 
able element and they come in contact with our people in a way 
which cannot in the large run be favorable either to morals or 
prosperity. . . . Under this view we have believed it well 

^LaFayette Grover, Governor of Oregon 1870-77; U. S. Senator 1877-83; born 
at Bethel, Maine, Nov. 24, 1823; died at Portland May 10, 191 1. 




THE KEVEREND EDWIN K. SHAPARD 



New Hope Seminary 



287 



and to apply the same to the use and benefit of New Hope Sem- 
inary. ' '^^ 

It developed that the missionaries had trouble in ousting some 
of the intruders who were occupying the school building. On Jan- 
uary 29, 1874, Superintendent T. J. Bond wrote from Boggy Depot 
to Circuit Judge Jerry "Ward of Mosholatubbe District that Mr. and 
Mrs. George T. Lincoln had failed to give possession; he had been 
notified to that effect by Mr. Shapard, and he called upon the judge 
to carry into effect the resolution passed in October, 1873. 

Judge Ward, on February 20, 1874, wrote Superintendent Bond 
that he could act only if the matter were brought into open court, 
and he advised him to make a demand in person on the Lineolns 
to give possession, and in case of refusal, for him to take up the 
case with the attorney general or the district attorney.^^ 

The Choctaws had progressed so far in educational concerns 
by the autumn of 1875 as to hold a teachers' institute in Mosho- 
latubbe District. Mr. Shapard reported the meeting in a letter to 
J. H. Sparks, editor of the Fori Smith Herald, on September 21, 
from Oak Lodge in the following words : ' ' We do something else 
besides quarreling and murdering in the Indian country. We are 
quite a civil and hospitable set generally, though we acknowledge 
that when aroused, the people of this country do some fighting. 
There is one characteristic among the Indians that should be com- 
mended that is — they are very quiet and orderly at all public gather- 
ings. Among many illustrations of this fact, we had one last week 
at a Teachers' Institute, a synopsis of the proceedings is presented 
below. We would be glad if you would give publicity to it in the 
form in which it stands, as it would be of interest to your many 
Indian readers, as well as to your readers throughout the States." 
The institute met at Rock Creek on September 13, 1875, with Trus- 
tee Edmund McCurtain presiding; Houston McCurtain was elected 
secretary; E. R. Shapard, upon motion of B. C. Heard, was elected 
chaplain with the privileges of a teacher. The meeting was called 
every morning and opened with prayer and singing. Committees 
were appointed, speeches were delivered ; several teachers and Cap- 
tain Chinnup, Mr. Page and Col. Jackson H. McCurtain, favoring 
and encouraging the efforts of the teachers of the district. By ac- 
clamation, James Merryman was elected interpreter for the institute. 
Among the various talks made on the best methods of teaching Choc- 
taw children were : ' ' Progress in learning without being able to speak 
the English language, difficult," by Peter Folsom; "Mode of teach- 



so Indian Archives Division, OHS, No. 19879, Choctaw-New Hope Seminary. 
31 Indian Archives, OHS, No. 19880, Choctaw-New Hope Seminary. 
^2 Ibid., No. 19881. 



288 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



ing English, grammar" was discussed by E. E. Shapard, who also 
spoke on methods of teaching geography. 

Mr. Shapard, C. C. Holmes and Peter Folsom were appointed 
an executive committee to give publicity to the proceedings of the 
institute through the Fort Smith Herald and Choctaw Vindicator 
(Atoka). 33 

Prom the Union Agency, Muscogee, Indian Territory, August 
31, 1876, Agent S. W. Marston reported that there were fifty pupils 
in New Hope Seminary for which the Choctaws were still appro- 
priating $5000 per annum, while the Methodist Board of Missions 
paid the salaries of the teachers and all other expenses which the 
Choctaw appropriation did not cover. The number of white mis- 
sionaries had greatly decreased since the Civil "War, and religious 
instruction was being given by native preachers directed by white 
missionaries.^* 

George T. Lincoln was still in possession of Port Coffee Academy 
in the autumn of 1876, and in order to force him to release the 
premises an act was passed by the General Council ordering the 
superintendent of public schools to proceed to SkuUyville and make 
a verbal or written demand for the place and improvements; in the 
event of Lincoln's refusal to vacate, the superintendent was in- 
structed to apply to the county judge of Skullyville County for a 
writ of ejectment to be served by the sheriff demanding that the 
trespasser leave the place within twenty days. If Lincoln refused 
to obey the sheriff, the officer was instructed to take forcible pos- 
session of Port Coffee and turn the place over to the superintendent 
of New Hope. The act was proposed by J. P. McCurtain and ap- 
proved by Coleman Cole, Principal Chief, on October 28, 1876.^5 

A comprehensive account of New Hope Seminary, made by Su- 
perintendent of Schools Edmund McCurtain from Red Oak, March 
10, 1877, was published in the McAlester 8 tar -Vindicator, March 24, 
1877, by Editor G. McPherson. The visit was made in company 
with District Trustee Green McCurtain, and their arrival at the 
school was wholly unexpected by Superintendent Shapard. "We 
therefore had the satisfaction of knowing that we saw the daily 
routine of the seminary. We were more than pleased with its man- 
agement. Everything was in perfect order. Every department had 
its head, and the head of every department seems to devote all of 
his or her energy to that department. The school room is under the 
management of two accomplished and energetic ladies, and the stu- 
dents are progressing rapidly in their studies. The sewing room is 



^^FoTt Smith Herald, October 5, 1875, p. 3, col. 4. 

Report, Commissioner Indian affairs, 1876, pp. 63, 64. 
^3 Laws of the Choctaw Nation passed at the Choctaw Councils of 1876 and 
1877, p. 35, Indian Archives Division, OHS, 16338, Choctaw National Council. 



New Hope Seminary 



289 



also under the management of a competent instructress who has 
long filled that position with credit to herself and benefit to our 
young ladies. 

« 

"Tlie dining room and kitchen are also under excellent control, 
and all is ably presided over by Rev. E. R. Shapard, the efficient 
superintendent. We were especially pleased with the cleanly aspect 
of every place we visited. The school room, bed rooms, store house, 
meat house, etc., were as tidy and clean as possible. The students 
are required to keep themselves and clothes clean and neat. They 
are also taught economy — nothing is wasted, but everything, even 
the scraps in the sewing, are utilized. The sick are also well eared 
for, and are daily visited by a physician. There were three sick 
when Ave visited — Misses Willis, Turnbull and Dickson — and I feel 
sure they could not have had better attention at home — possibly not 
so good. 

"In truth we have a right, and ought to be proud of New Hope 
under its present management, and I think we all owe a debt of 
gratitude to its able superintendent and his efficient corps of as- 
sistants.^^ 

A touching account of a New Hope girl appeared in the Christ- 
ian Advocate, Nashville, February 3, 1877; written by Edwin Ruth- 
ven Shapard, who told of preaching the funeral sermon of Nancy 
LeFlore, "whose life and character was an exhibition of the good 
which is being done in this country by the grace of God, using the 
ministry and schools as means. Nancy was a pupil at New Hope 
for four years. . . . One year ago the Superintendent of Public 
Schools asked me to select some young ladies whom he proposed to 
send away to receive a more advanced education. . . She was among 
the number selected. Every one expected that she would, if spared, 
return to honor and benefit her people. Her Heavenly Father took 
her away to himself last April, while she was in Columbia, Mo. . . ." 

In June, 1879, the family at New Hope numbered sixty-three, 
and Circuit Rider John T. Pittman frequently joined them to play 
with the children. He described a large rock building, two stories 
high with walls two feet thick. The building was furnished with 
three rows of desks, a blackboard, and on the whitewashed walls 
were needle work inscriptions. The windows were hung with beau- 
tiful embroidered curtains made by the girls under the supervision 
of Mrs. Nickell. On the west end of the building was a room where 
Miss Holmes of Murfreesboro, Tennessee, heard recitations. The 
library was housed in that room and consisted of a varied assortment 
of books. There was a busy scene upstairs where Mrs. Nickell taught. 
Around the wall were shelves on which were piled materials, and 

36 Indian Archives Division, OHS, Litton Choctaw Papers, 1872-1937, pp. 160- 

162. 



290 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



finished garments. At five-thirty in the morning the girls were 
aroused and at six they marched to prayers in the school room. An 
hour later breakfast was served with the four long tables presided 
over by Mrs. Nickells, Miss Lueile Holmes, Miss Rankin, Mr. and 
Mrs. Shapard. School commenced at nine and continued until noon, 
when dinner and recreation occupied an hour and a half. Lessons 
went on until four o'clock, when sewing filled the hours until dark; 
after supper study was resumed until eight-thirty, when the house- 
hold was called to prayer which finished the day. 

The Indian Journal of Muskogee, Indian Territory, November 
6, 1879, contains a description of a visit paid by Bishop George F. 
Pierce to New Hope in which he appeared greatly pleased with 
" ... a hearty welcome from Rev E. R. Shapard . . . This school 
is doing a great work for the rising generation. It is a school for 
girls only . . . The Board of Missions, by contract, is bound to 
board, clothe and teach eighty pupils, and to supplement the [Choc- 
taw] appropriation as may be necessary. It costs the church about 
six hundred and fifty dollars a year. The investment pays and 
will pay more, as the tribe sees and feels the elevation of their 
people. In social life the influence must be salutary. The girls are 
taught cleanliness of person, neatness in apparel, propriety of man- 
xers, learned to cut and sew and cook and house in order." 

During the General Council in 1880 Peter Nod introduced a 
resolution that the sum of fifty dollars be appropriated to pay Ed- 
mund McCurtain for extra services in securing the national property 
at Fort Coffee for the use and benefit of New Hope Seminary. 
Principal Chief J. F. McCurtain approved the act October 16, 1880.^^ 

A notice appeared in the Nashville Christian Advocate in 1877, 
calling for a teacher for New Hope Seminary; Miss Lochie Rankin 
was chosen from twenty-five applicants, and at the end of her first 
year her eighteen-year-old sister Dora became assistant teacher. Miss 
Lochie was called to serve in China and Miss Dora became prin- 
cipal. Mr. Shapard recorded that she managed the school with 
judgment and discipline which might have been expected of one 
far beyond her years. "Their names are held sacred to the Choc- 
taw people. Loved by their pupils, the memory of them is cherished 
around the rude hearth-stones, and in many places do we hear now 
little children called by the name of Lochie or Dora."^* 

Miss Dora Rankin joined her sister in China when she was nine- 
teen; she devoted her life to the mission work there until 1886 
when she fell at her post. She was described as "Handsome in per- 
son, beautiful in spirit ... a grand missionary." Miss Lochie is 

Indian Archives, OHS, Acts and Resolutions passed at the Regular Term 
of the General Council of the Choctaw Nation, October, 1880, No. 18348. 
38 E. R. Shapard, Eufaula, C.N. January 18, 1887. 



New Hope Seminary 



291 



said to have borne her loss heroically, and she notified the bishop 
that she would stay at her post in China.^^ 

John Q. Tiifts, United States Indian Agent, from the Union 
Agency at Muskogee, October 10, 1880, stated that the Choctaws 
had fifty-nine common schools and two seminaries, New Hope, with 
fifty-one girls in attendance, and Spencer Academy where there 
were sixty boy stvidents. The schools were flourishing, and the 
Choctaws saw to it that the persons who managed their financial 
and educational interests attended strictly to their duties.^* 

Early in 1883 New Hope was visited by Rev. J. N. Moore, who 
reported "Brother Shapard and family well, and the school in ex- 
cellent condition." Our Brother in Red, Muskogee, May, 1883, con- 
tained the news that since Conference of the previous autumn, the 
Reverend Jacoway Bilh^ supply on the Mashulatubbe circuit, had 
died. Of the New Hope Seminary, Brother Shapard wrote: "Our 
school is full. Music-class fills up every minute. There has not 
been a death at New Hope among the piipils for seven years. The 
average yearly mortality for the last twelve years has been four 
to the thousand." 

In August, 1883, the Reverend Edward A. Gray arrived at New 
Hope to become superintendent, and the Choctaws were favorably 
impressed with him, although they were rehictant to part with 
"Brother Shapard, who has served them so faithfully and effici- 
ently for eleven years. "^^ 

Mr. Gray belonged to the North Georgia Conference, and when 
he and his wife came west they were accompanied by Miss Anna M. 
DeWees who was sent as a missionary teacher by Bishop Pierce. 
She remained at the school three years before being transferred to 
another station. In her old age she recalled that Mrs. Fuller and 
her daughter. Miss Fannie Fuller, were matron and assistant matron 
at New Hope. The Rev. Mr. Folsom, presiding elder, lived near 
the seminary. A certain , Indian was to be hanged, and Mr. Fol- 
som remained with him all of the day and night before the exe- 
cution. Miss DeWees was first married to Isaac W. Bruce, who 
died in 1894. After serving as matron at Armstrong and Jones 



39 Young J. Allen, Shanghai, China, December 10, 1886; E. R. Shapard, Eu- 
faula, I. T., December 18, 1886. The above articles from a scrap book complied 
by Miss Lizzie Shapard are now the property of Mr. Edward Ruthven Shapard, Jr., 
Muskogee, Oklahoma. 

^0 Report, Commissioner Indian affairs, 1880, pp. 95, 96. 

*l Our Brother in Red, August, 1883, p. 2, col. 1. 



292 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



academies, she became the wife of Judge Stocton S. Fears of Mus- 
kogee, Oklahoma.^2 

The committee on education wrote the Indian Mission Confer- 
ence in October, 1883, that the New Hope Seminary, under the 
superintendency of Brother Shapard had a year of prosperity equal- 
ing any other of its history. Much regret was expressed that Mr. 
Shapard had been compelled to relinquish his position on account of 
the ill health of his wife. "For eleven years he has faithfully filled 
this position, in which he doubtless had accomplished great good for 
the cause of Christ. ... we are glad that his place has been filled 
by Rev. E. A. Gray, who, doubtless, vsdll be fully competent to meet 
the demands of the school in the future."*^ 

In the autumn of 1883, Mr. Shapard wrote that his family was 
living in Fort Smith where he spent about half of his time. The 
remainder was devoted to making the rounds of quarterly meetings. 
He reported that Mr. Gray was preparing for the opening of New 
Hope, and that he and his teachers had every qualification for suc- 
cess. "I think that the school is in safe hands. A revival spirit 
pervades almost all of the district. New ideas, new views, and re- 
newed resolutions are taking hold of the members of the Church."** 

New Hope Seminary resumed work on September, 1883, with 

forty-eight pupils present and five delayed beea^Tse of illness. "Our 

entire Faculty have entered upon their respective duties with much 

interest and enthusiasm. We are gratified at the cheerful obedience 

and general good deportment of our scholars. We trust that, day 

by day, we are sowing seed that shall bring forth sheaves for the 
Master. 

New Hope had a full quota of pupils in December, 1883, and 
affairs were moving smoothly in all departments. There had been 
a few cases of chills and rheumatism, but no serious illnesses. 



'^^ Chronicles of Oklahoma, Vol. XI, No. 2, p. 878. Willis F. Folsom, born in 
Mississippi in 1826, came west with his father who first settled on Brazile Creek 
near the crossing of the Fort Smith and Texas Road; they later removed to Fourch- 
maline, where they made a permanent home. When Willis was seventeen he married, 
and shortly afterward he was selected as a student at Spencer Academy, where he 
was converted. The Rev. John Harrell convinced Folsom that the Lord had work 
for him, and he was placed on a circuit when only an exhorter. He was able to 
preach in English or Choctaw, and he acted as interpreter for white ministers. He 
was often destitute for the necessaries of life, but refused political office; the 
members of the General Conference, at Memphis, were electrified when Brother 
Folsom raised his hands and exclaimed, "I am a lost Indian, saved by Grace" 
(Shapard Scrapbook). 

43 Oar Brother in Red, October, 1883, p. 2, cols 2 & 3. 

'^^Ibid., September 1883, p. 4, col. 1. 

45 E. A. Gray to Rev. T. F. Brewer from Oak Lodge, Choctaw Nation, October 
12, 1883, published in November, 1883, issue of Our Brother in Red. 



New Hope Seminary 



293 



"We are now enjoying a revival of religion in our school; not 
having a protracted-meeting, but experiencing the presence of the 
Spirit at our morning and evening prayers. . . . There seems to 
be a serious earnestness manifest among all the scholars. Brother 
W. F. Folsom has been with us frequently, and has preached, and 
talked, and prayed, with peculiar power and influence. Quite a 
number have been converted, and I received ten young ladies in 
our church last night. , . . 

"What mighty agents for good in this Nation will these girls 
be if we can send them all back to their homes full of love to God 
and immortal souls! There can be no surer or more speedy way to 
spread Christianity over this whole Territory than by making reli- 
gious instruction a prominent feature of all the schools. . . . the late 
Choctaw Council appropriated sufficient funds to increase our num- 
ber from fifty-three to one hundred. We shall begin very soon to 
enlarge and build to meet these demands, for there are numerous 
applicants now begging admission, but our rooms are more than 
full. 

"We are taking steps toward building a chapel church near us, 
so that all our school can attend preaching regularly. We hope 
to get it ready for our Commencement exercises next June. I know 
you will rejoice with us in these bright prospects for New Hope; 
and we hope there may continue to go out from this Institution 
those who will be a blessing to their race, and even in the retired 
sphere of women be eminently useful."*^ 

The new school building was commenced early in the spring ^Df 
1884, but heavy rains and bad roads greatly retarded the work, and 
it was not expected to finish the construction before summer. Mr. 
Gray was encouraged and delighted with affairs in his school ; the 
health of the girls had been remarkably good during the winter, 
in fact there had been only one or two cases of serious illness. 
Measles was wide-spread that spring, and Mr. Gray trusted that 
"a kind Providence will continue to shield us from the contagion." 
Some twenty of the girls professed religion and joined the Methodist 
Church, while several others wished to join the Presbyterian and 
Baptist churches. 

A parsonage and memorial chapel were to be built at New Hope 
and help was coming from many sources. Mr. Gray was hopeful of 
having the Indian Mission Conference represented in the church 
building by a donation. The church was to be a memorial to the 
senior bishop whose deep interest in Choctaws was well known.'*'' 

April 13, 1884, was a great day at New Hope, as the corner 
stone of the new building was laid in the presence of three Methodist 

46 Our Brother in Red, December. 1883, p. 2, cols. 2 & 3. 
*7 Our Brother in Red, March, 1884, pp. 3 & 4. 



294 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



clergymen — Messrs. Gray, Atkins and Folsom, who made addresses 
and readings from the Bible. At the October meeting of the Choc- 
taw Council an appropriation of $5000 had been made for the erec- 
tion of the building and the number of pupils increased to one 
hundred. The corner stone contained a copy of the original con- 
tract between the church and the nation, a photograph of the super- 
intendent, several ancient coins and Indian curiosities, and a copy 
of the Choctaw Hymn Book. After music and a prayer by the 
superintendent, Miss Mary Cakes, a student, gave a history of the 
seminary "in which she displayed both talent and training." 

Ralph King, who was present at the ceremonies, wrote an ac- 
count of the school for the Fort Smith Elevator, which was copied 
in the Indian Journal of Muskogee, May 8, 1884, p. 1, columns 2 
and 3. Among other items of interest, he stated that Mr. Clayborn 
Lewis who had died a few years previously at Witcherville, Arkansas, 
had charge of the agricultural department of the school, and that 
Colonel E. T. Walker, of Scott County, was also connected with 
New Hope. According to this writer, the seminary was closed at 
the beginning of the Civil War, and the building used as a Con- 
federate hospital. "Mr. Shapard did much to build up the school 
and regulate the different departments, which are divided into lit- 
erary, musical and industrial pursuits. ..." 

During 1884 serious differences arose between the Methodist 
Church and the Choctaw Council over the management of New Hope; 
the Council voted to abrogate the contract with the church at the 
end of the school year in 1886. The autumn term of the seminary 
began September 7, 1885, with a competent faculty and a hundred 
students were present to occupy the new dormitory. Eighty-two 
pupils were converted and joined the church. The Rev. John Jasper 
Methvin, the superintendent, was obliged to "shape his course to- 
ward the closing of the school rather than the development of it." 

Mr. Methvin, a native of Georgia, was born December 17, 1846 ; 
after the Civil War, in which he served two years, he attended col- 
lege and studied law, but the church drew him in a short time, and 
he was licensed to preach in 1870. In 1873 he was married to Miss 
Emma Louise Beall, and to them three sons and one daughter were 
born before they moved to the Indian Territory in 1885. A fourth 
son, H. A. Methvin, was born soon after their arrival at New Hope. 

Mr. Methvin 's first year at the seminary was so successful that 
many of the prominent members of the council regretted rescinding 
the contract with the church. "Nevertheless, after forty years of 
service to the Nation, the school closed. The last year was the best 
year. "48 

48 Chronicles of Oklahoma, "John Jasper Methvin" by Sidney H. Babcock, June, 
1941, pp. 114-15. 



J^ew Hope Seminary 



295 



The above statement appears to be a mistake, since the Cboctaw 
Auditor, Napoleon B. Ainsworth, paid to Dr. Alfred Griffith from 
September 1, 1886, to January 31, 1887, the sum of $5,000 for sup- 
port of New Ilope.'^^ A warrant was issued at Tushkahoma to re- 
imburse Fort Smith merchants for goods received from February 1, 
1887, to July 31 of that year.^o 

The staff at New Hope who receipted for salaries December 9, 
1887, were Mittie S. Burton, Nettie M. Russell, Carrie C. Shank, 
Neely F. Carpenter (ironer), Jane C. Carpenter, cook; A. M. Fuller, 
matron. Doctor Griffith receipted for $265.09 for his services as 
physician.^^ 

Repairs were being made at New Hope in 1889, since B. C. 
Blakely, Master of the "Regular Fort Smith and Fort Gibson 
Packet", Border City, rendered a bill to the school for $104.87 for 
lumber and shingles shipped by Miller and Dyke.^^ 

Miss Burton was still employed at the seminary in March, 1889, 
but new teachers were Gertrude Brandeberry and Eva Mai Pierce. 
The treasurer of the Choctaw Nation paid $10,000 for support of 
the school, and $105.80 was received from other sources. Repairs 
and improvements were made in 1888-89 to the amount of $497.04^^ 
Griffith, on August 13, 1890, paid H. Waite $70.00 "for an yoke- 
oxen". 

New Hope opened September 1, 1890, with "the students re- 
porting more promptly than usual, and exhibiting a spirit of in- 
dustry and obedience, enabling us to maintain proper discipline and 
carry on the work, both in the school room and elsewhere, success- 
fully." Attendance was remarkably good, being one hundred and 
nineteen for the year with an average of one hundred. Measles, 
that scourge of boarding schools, invaded the seminary in the latter 
part of January, and the regular work of the school was seriously 
interrupted for two weeks. The general health of the pupils was 
fairly good, except for the death of one girl and of several others 
who, "owing to feeble constitution, were sick a large portion of the 
year. ' ' 

According to a new law approved by Principal Chief W. W. 
Jones, October 31, 1890, each student before admission to a Choc- 
taw boarding school, was required to undergo a "creditable" phy- 

*9 Indian Archives, OHS, New Hope, No. 19883. Napoleon B. Ainsworth was 
bom in 1856 at Skullyville; at the age of fifteen he entered Roanoke College at 
Salem, Virginia. After graduation in 1880, he attended the University of Virginia 
where he studied law. He was appointed auditor of his nation to fill the unex- 
pired term of Leflore, and in 1887 was elected to the office (H. F. 

O'Beirne, Leaders and Leading Man of the Indian Territory, Chicago, 1891, p. 106). 

50 Ibid., No. 19886. 

No. 19889. 

52/6zU, No. 19891. 

53/6jU, No. 19901. 



296 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



sical examination before a competent physician selected by the su- 
perintendent of schools, as well as a mental test, the standard to be 
fixed by the Board of Education. Doctor Griffith was heartily 
in favor of the law, as persons physically unfit by chronic disease 
would be excluded. 

Steam heat was installed in the New Hope school before the 
close on June 18, 1891, and that innovation saved the students from 
much extra work and exposure during cold weather. The moral 
and religious training had brought encouraging results and graded 
reports of the standing of each student had been carefully compiled 
according to a new school law. 

Doctor Griffith called the attention of the Board to the abuse 
of the hospitality of the seminary by many persons who attended 
the annual' examinations, although they had no interest in the in- 
stitution, and only crowded out parents and relatives who had a 
legitimate right to be there. He suggested that a plan be adopted 
by which the annoyance might be avoided.^* 

Many well known Choctaw names appear on the list of students 
at the school at that period : Hudson, LeFlore, Jones, Garland, 
Byinglon, Tocubbe, Pickens, Folsom, Chubby, Harkins, Wall and 
Pitehlynn. 

The sixth annual report of Doctor Griffith to the Board of 
Education carried the information that New Hope was in a pros- 
perous condition. One hundred sixteen pupils had attended al- 
though the average was ninety; this doubtless was due to a severe 
form of malarial fever during October, which resulted in the death 
of four girls, and the return home of several students during the 
prevalence of the disease. Systematic physical training had been 
introduced and kindergarten methods adopted in the primary de- 
partment, which materially increased its efficiency. Doctor Grif- 
fith's plea for regulating non-citizen guests at the school had been 
heard by the Board, and he followed the instructions sent him with 
satisfactory results. 

"The contract between the School Board of the Choctaw Nation 
and the Missionary Society of the M. E. Church for the manage- 
ment of New Hope Seminary expired June 15, '92, and according 
to agreement with the Supt. of Public Schools, on the 9th of June 
I transferred all property belonging to the school to Mr. T. D. Ains- 
worth, who had been designated to receive the same. Respectfully 
Dr. A. Griffith. "55 

Thomas D. Ainsworth of Skullyville, the next superintendent, 
was the first man of Choctaw blood to fill the positon. During the 

54 Indian Archives, OHS, Choctaur-Neiv Hope Seminary, No. 19907. 

55 Indian Archives Division, OHS, Choctaw-New Hope Seminary, No. 19917. 
110,136.29 had been expended at the school, leaving a balance of $19.87. 



New Hope Seminary 



297 



next term 'goods were bought for the school from Ainsworth Brothers, 
Oak Lodge. That year beef cost three and a half cents per pound. 
Henry Sutherland Avas the principal teacher and Lena Sutherland 
the matron. Other instructors during 1892-1893 were Minnie E. 
Nichols, Mary B. Thompson and M. Stalcup. 

Ainsworth 's report to the Board for the 1892-93 session of New 
Hope was unique and deserves to be quoted : " ... on account of 
political prejudice or Christian intolerance or both combined the 
school was not full — I believe the attendance would not average 
over seventy-five for the entire term — but I am happy to say under 
these adverse circumstances I succeeded in spending the entire ap- 
propriation — and without levity — or fear of successful contradic- 
tion — that the girls intrusted to my care had more opportunities 
for study — and were treated better and more like people who were 
paying their way than ever characterized the management of any 
of our Boarding Schools. "^^ 

A curious letter, preserved among the Choctaw records, was 
sent from New Hope Seminary, October 28, 1892; it shows that all 
was not as smooth as the superintendent reported. "What you have 
been hearing about our school is False. 

"We have seen no drinking here except by Mr. John Garland 
one time and no whiskey at all. We have seen no drinking before 
or since. And as to dancing there has been none except by some 
of our small girls off in their rooms when the teachers knew noth- 
ing about it, and Mr. Ainsworth was not at home. And when he 
came home he put a stop to their playing dancing in their room. 
The teachers knew nothing about it, and no music except by five 
cent harp. And you can imagine what kind dancing was done 
amonsj our small girls. 

"We are not allowed to go outside without permission by Supt. 
and some of the teachers go with us. Some girls may slip off and 
go outside without permission. 

"Everything you have heard about out school is false except 
few things what we mentioned. We send this letter by Mr. Amos 
Henry. ' ' 

(Signers) 

Mary Leflore Blue County 
Sophie Hayes " " 
Ethel Ross, Cache, Skullyville Co. 
Allie Wall, Skullyville Co. 
Mollie Bacon, Wade Co. 
Lecina Hudson, Eagle Co. 



56 Indian Archives Division, OHS, Choctaw-New Hope Seminary, No. 19921. 



298 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



Ainswortli's statement^'' to the General Council, July 31, 1894, 
showed New Hope in debt for the sum of $623.80. Teachers and 
employees had been paid $2492.70 ; Mr. and Mrs. Southerland (sic) 
had received ninety dollars a month ; Belle Falconer, the seamstress, 
thirty dollars; Ralda Nichols, teacher, $35.00; Ernistine Williams, 
teacher, $30; Minnie Nichols Enaligh, "@15 sick"; Mrs. Long and 
family cooks, $45 ; J. C. Martin, hired man, $25. Sutherland had 
quit two months before school closed, and his wife had lost enough 
time to cover the discrepancy, so they received only $702.95 for 
their services. 

One hundred sixteen pupils had been enrolled, but the average 
attendance was ninety-two. The highest class, numbering nine, 
studied algebra, arithmetic, grammar, physiology, composition and 
rhetoric. Thirty girls were in the Third Reader and below, while 
the remainder ranged from the Fourth Reader to History of the 
United States, with corresponding studies.^* 

Superintendent Ainsworth in submitting his report for 1894 
and 1895 to the General Council, stated that the average attend- 
ance for five months was about eighty; progress of the students in 
several studies had been commendable, and the health of the girls 
very good. The clothing and food furnished was the best the ap- 
propriation justified, and teachers, superintendent and pupils were 
given the same fare. 

When the boarding schools were established, they were located 
in different parts of the Nation so as to be as close to the pupils 
as possible. Ainsworth thought it advisable to reapportion the chil- 
dren at the boarding schools so that no great expense would be 
incurred by parents in taking them to school. The council was in- 
debted to Ainsworth for expenses which were heavier than they 
would have been if the school had been continued the full ten months. 

Henry Byington, chairman of the committee on schools, in a 
report to the General Council, stated that the committee, after a 
careful examination found that expenditures had exceeded receipts 
at New Hope to the amount of $696.76 owing to the closing of the 
school on January 31, 1895, and recommended that the report of 
Ainsworth be accepted as correct. The committee later asked the 
council to pass a bill for the relief of Superintendent Ainsworth 
in the sum of $1306.70 to reimburse him for expenditures during 
1893 and 1894 term, and for the two following years in excess of 
the appropriations which had been made for the seminary.^^ 



57 Indian Archives, OHS, Choctaw-New Hope Seminary, No. 19918. 
58/6fU, No. 19924. 

59 Indian Archives, OHS, Choctaw-New Hope Seminary, Nos. 19926, 19927, 19928. 



New Hope Seminary 



299 



Ainsworth's final report as to the financial state of New Hope 
for the year ending July 31, 1896, showed that he had a balance of 
$340.00 on hand which he wrote astonished him. He requested pay- 
ment for his two last reports as he needed the money in his business.^" 

From Oak Lodge, September 30, 1897, E. J. Ward wrote to 
"The Hon. Board of Education of the Choctaw Nation .... I 
taken charge of New Hope Seminary on Nov. 24th and continued 
in charge until the night of Dec. 30, 1896, when it was destroyed 
by fire ..." AVard rendered a bill for $900 to the nation for 
superintending the New Hope property from January 1 to Sep- 
tember 30, 1897.«i 

The end of New Hope was the same as many other early schools 
in the Indian Territory; Dwight was burned with a loss of life 
among the students ; both fine buildings of the Cherokee seminaries 
were lost by fire ; Asbury Mission and Tullahassee in the Creek 
Nation were burned as well as Bloomfield in the Chickasaw Nation, 
and perhaps there were others.*^ 



^Olbid., No. 19930. 
No. 19931. 

62 Principal Chief Green McCurtain, on June 2, 1899, sold rails and railings 
from New Hope to J. H. Bowman for ten dollars. Bowman wrote to G. W. Scott, 
treasurer of the nation, June 15, 1900, relative to the sale of the New Hope prop- 
erty; "I am anxious to know the conditions of said [property] and what there is 
to sell, and who will be the salesman and what their {sic) is to sell, and when 
to be sold whether Public or Private Sale. I will send you the copy of the letter 
the Hon. Green McCurtain wrote me giving me possession of the above named 
Premises New Hoper. WiU inform you that under contract between Gov McCur- 
tain that I have the exclusive right to said New Hope Premises and will contende 
for the same it being my wifes allotment. 

"Let me hear from you and please inform me who has bid on New Hope and 
their bids and their names . . ." — Indian Archives, OHS, Choctaw-New Hope 
Seminary, Nos. 19932, 19933. 



300 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



DISSOLUTION OF THE WICHITA RESERVATION 

By Berlin B. Chapman 
Part II* 

In accordance with the act of March 2, 1895, AVilliam P. Cole- 
man and George A. H. Mills were appointed special allotting agents 
for the Wichita reservation and entered upon their duty under in- 
structions approved by the Department of the Interior on March 5, 
1897.1 The ninety days allowed after the ratification of the agree- 
ment for the selection of allotments had lapsed more than a year 
since. No formal extension of time had been made or date fixed 
before which selections must be made. It was the policy of the 
Office of Indian Affairs to give the Indians ample time to make 
their selections voluntarily, before exercising the right to assign 
them allotments.^ However, the agents were instructed, whenever 
the work should be sufficiently progressed for them to do so, to re- 
port the date before which selections of such as were willing to 
make them could be completed.^ 

By April 17 the agents had made some fifteen allotments. They 
found that the work was practically the same as an original survey 
in a wild, virgin country and they realized that it could not be 
done properly in a short time. They found "great opposition among 
the Indians, evidently inspired and fostered by their chiefs." But 
the agents were optimistic, believing that opposition was breaking 
down and that individuals were uneasy that locations they had 
chosen would be acquired by others. "We therefore expect," they 
wrote, "by the end of this week to be as much embarrassed by a 



* Part I of "Dissolution of the Wichita Reservation" by Dr. Berlin B. Chap- 
man was published in The Chronicles, XXII (Summer, 1944), No. 2, pp. 237-309. 

1 D. R. Francis to Com. Ind. Aff., March 5, 1897, OIA, Special Case 147, 8798- 
1897. The instructions are in OIA, L. Letter Book 349, pp. 301-308. Coleman and 
Miller were appointed by President Cleveland on Feb. 27, 1897, to serve "during 
the pleasure of the President." Their compensation was $8.00 per diem and actual 
and necessary traveling expenses exclusive of subsistence. Nat. Archives, Int. 
Dept., Appt. Div., Consolidated Commission, vol. 1, pp. 503-504. 

In completing this series of articles I have had the interest and helpful co- 
operation of Mr. William Collins, President of the Wichita Nation Association, 
Gracemont, Oklahoma. Youthful friends in my Oklahoma History classes in A. and 
M. College have laid me under lasting obligations by their enthusiastic assistance. 
In this series I am especially indebted to Miss Helen Johnson of Tulsa, Miss 
Helen E. Davis of Ponca City, and to Miss Billie Marie Howard of Marietta. 

2 Act. Com. Thomas P. Smith to E. J. Simpson, May 26, 1897, OIA, I. Letter 
Book 355, p. 402. 

3 Browning to Coleman and Mills, March 2, 1897, OIA, L. Letter Book 349, 
pp. 304-305. 



Dissolution of the Wichita Reservation 301 

rush for allotments as we have hitherto been by the want of it."* 
But pressure stronger than individual jealousy was needed to cause 
Wichitas to rush for allotments. On Maj^ 7 the Mmco Minstrel, on 
the eastern border of the reservation, observed that "an allotment 
proposition, with no power to enforce it, is a fraud in its concep- 
tion and a burlesque in its execution. * * * So far as accomplish- 
ing the work of allotment and preparing that country for settlement 
is concerned, all hope from these allotting agents, with present power, 
is vanity and vexation of spirit. If they get the power to allot the 
Indians it may be done, without that power they might as well go 
fishing for the rest of their lives. 

The "Wichitas realized that with allotments would come law with 
Avhich they were inexperienced and which to them seemed to protect 
the rich and ruin the poor.^ They were dissatisfied with the pro- 
vision of the act of Congress allowing them not more than $1.25 
an acre with the provision that the same should not be paid until 
the United States should receive the money from settlers who were 
not required to make payment until final proof. A delegation was 
sent to Washington to appeal for a discontinuance of the work of 
allotment.' AVhatever their accomplishment may have been, the work 
was suspended by a Senate resolution* of June 1 requesting delay 
until the matter of compensation for the surplus lands should be de- 
termined. The allotting agents were ordered to their homes on June 
5, although Coleman was allowed until July 1 to prepare a record 
of the work accomplished. He and Mills had made some 65 allot- 
ments,^ which evidently were not approved.^" 



* Letter of April 17, 1897, OIA, Special Case 147, 15445-1897. 
5 A copy of the paper is in ibid., 18421-1897. 

*> In a letter to Commissioner Browning on March 18, 1896 they said: "We do 
not know anything about Law that's the reason we are afraid." Ibid., 45594-1896. 

7 W. A. Jones to Sec. Int., Sept. 10, 1897, Ind. Aff., 1897, p. 22. 

8 5. Documents, 55 Cong. 1 sess., vi (3563), no. 143. 

9 In the letter of instructions to Agents Perry, Kirkpatrick, and Museller, dated 
March 11, 1901, Jones gives the number as "some 66" OIA, L. Letter Book 472, 
p. 8. 

The Daily Oklahoman, June 19, 1897, in commenting on the order to cease 
the work of alllotment said: "No explanation accompanied the order and the agents 
are now surmising as to whether the move bears any political significance or is the 
result of the influence of cattlemen with the Indians, and the latter with the 'great 
father in Washington.' At all events work comes to a complete stand still, with 
little prospect of its early resumption and final completion." See also The El 
Reno Neivs, June 25, 1897. 

10 Jones to Sec. Int., Jan. 16, 1901, OIA, 396 Ind. Div., 1901. In 1898 the 
Secretary of the Interior included the words, "no allotments," in a statement con- 
cerning the reservation. H. Documents, 55 Cong. 3 sess., xiv(3756, p. cxxxvii. In 
1899 Agent Randlett reported that no regular allotments had been made but that 
many of the Wichitas had located on and fenced portions of lands upon which 
they expressed a desire to establish permanent homes. Randlett to the Com. Ind. 
Aff., Sept. 1, Ind. Aff., 1899, p. 288. 



302 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



On June 14 a council was held at Cobb Creek, near Anadarko, 
at whicii the chiefs of the Caddo and Delaware tribes, the council- 
men and 94 members of the tribes petitioned the Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs that further survey of the lands should cease and 
that the Indians should be permitted to enjoy in their own way 
the country that had been set apart for them.^^ They charged that 
the allotting agents exercised little knowledge and judgment in the 
selection of allotments, often disregarded the desires of the allottees 
and assigned them poor lands arbitrarily. They asked that the 
agents be recalled. 

About the time of the ratification of the agreement the Indians 
urged Acting Agent Baldwin to hold a council with them concern- 
ing the opening of the reservation, the allotting of lands, and the 
procedure by which the Cherokee Coramission secured the agreement. 
Two years later, on March 23 and 24, 1897, their repeated requests 
secured a council in which they had free latitude to talk and what 
they said was preserved in the Council Proceedings.^^ The term. 



11 The petition is in OIA, Special Case 147, 24641—1897. 

12 S. Documents, 55 Cong. 1 sess., iv (3561), no. 53. The proceedings of the 
council fill a dozen pages. It is difficult to determine how honest was the cause 
embodied in the words of those' not proficient in the use of the English language. 
To-wac-o-nie Jim, Chief of the Wichitas, said: "It is a fact what I have said to- 
night, that the country on the other side of the Washita River is mine, and the 
country that has been sold by the Cheyennes is mine, and I never got no cent 
for it." The chief was speaking for the Wichitas in his representative capacity. 

White Bread, Second Chief of the Caddoes, related how the Cherokee Com- 
mission had "kindly surprised the Indians during the treaty. The Indians got ex- 
cited, were forced, and didn't know what they were signing. He says that I am 
talking this morning; I am telling you the whole truth of it. The Commissioners 
had officers and soldiers guarding the door, and the Commissioners forced these 
Indians to sign a treaty; says I know that just as sure as I am standing here, be- 
cause I heard of it myself with my own ears. He says that we told the Commis- 
sioners we may just as well adjourn this council, because you don't want to listen 
to me what I have to say to you and I don't want to listen to you; and he says, 
we have an Indian agent appointed by the Government of the United States to 
come out here and look after the Indians; and the agent told us Indians that the 
Government want us to go on our farms and improve our places and to work like 
a man. 

"That is what we told the Commissioners, and now to-day (he means during 
that council, you know) you have been holding us here at this council for a month 
or over, and we have farms, put in our crops, and now I expect that it is all weedy 
and we wouldn't have no crop, and Mr. Jerome spoke up and told these Indians, 
you can not do that; you may just as well send the women folks home and let 
them tend to the farms, pull the weeds up, and he says the Government advises 
us not to make the women work; he says we held a council for about two months 
[May 9 to June 4, 1891], and To-wac-o-nie Jim told the Commissioners that we 
are disgusted, worn out holding council day after day, and we have accomplished 
nothing yet, so therefore I will move the council should adjourn and we will all 
go home and tend to our farms. Governor Jerome spoke up, told these Indians 
very well, you can do as you please; if you all go home you can do so, but the 
days you willl come back faster than you went; the Government soldiers will go 
after you and bring you back anyhow, and the Government will make you take 
allotments whether you want to or not. The Commissioners told the Indians, if 



Dissolution of the Wichita Reservation 



303 



"Jerome treaty," had become a reproach among them and they 
were at least successful in convincing BaldAvin that "there was a 
great deal of undue coercion used" in maldng it.^^ He reported that 
several of the Indians were willing to state under oath that they 
had been offered as high as $500 to sign the agreement and to use 
their influence in securing the signatures of others by misinterpre- 
tation and other fraudulent means. 

While the Wichitas had very bitter and deep objections to the 
agreement, they were willing to take allotments whenever they should 
become capable of gaining a livelihood from small tracts of land 
compared to the reservation at large. They desired that Congress 
reconsider the agreement or at least postpone the opening of the 
country until they were prepared to meet the requirements of citi- 
zenship. Occasion was taken to assert the long-standing claims for 
compensation for lands south and west of the reservation, allegedly 
taken from the tribe. The Council Proceedings together with the 
Baldwin letter were transmitted to the Senate on April 22, 1897.^* 

On the request of the Indians a council assembled on June 3 
and 4 to consider the question of taking allotments and subsequent 
action in connection therewith. A memorial, signed by 110 mem- 
bers of the tribe, was addressed to Congress. It reviewed the 
claims of the Indians to the reservation and adjoining lands; re- 
quested that allotments should be increased to 640 acres in order 
to be used as profitable grazing farms ; and it asked that the tribe 
should receive compensation for the surplus lands within the reser- 
vation and pajTnent for claims to other lands before allotments were 
made. Baldwin reiterated his former views in stating that in his 
opinion the Indians had good ground upon which to base their pe- 
tition and that at that time they were absolutely unfitted to meet 
the requirements of civilization which would be entailed upon them 
by the opening of the reservation. For their benefit he recommended 
that the date of opening, as nearly as possible, should be deter- 
mined.^^ The memorial was transmitted to the House of Represen- 
tatives on June 30, 1897. Secretary Bliss concurred in the view 



you make an agreement with us you will receive 160 acres to the head; if you 
refuse to make any kind of treaty with us you will be forced by the Dawes bill, 
then you will have to take 80 acres to the head. He says the Commissioners never 
give these Indians time to study and think what they have to say, but instead of 
doing that the Commissioners excited the Indians, and got them so that they didn't 
know what they were doing; that is how it is that this treaty was signed." 

13 Baldwin to the Com. Ind. Aff., March 25, 1897, S. Documents, loc. cit., p. 2. 

1*C. N. Bliss to the President of the Senate, April 22, 1897, S. Documents^ 
loc. cit., p. 1. Baldwin recommended that the reservation should be made "thor- 
oughly and simply an Indian country" by means of consolidation. 

15 The memorial and Council Proceedings are in H. Documents, 55 Cong. 1 
sess., i (3571), no. 74. The original documents are in OIA, Special Case 147, no. 
23557-1897. 

IS Baldwin to the Com. Ind. Aff., June 10, 1897, H. Documents, loc. cit., p. 2. 



304 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



that the reservation should not be opened without further legisla- 
tion. 

It is well to note the position Baldwin occupied in' the struggle 
of prospective settlers (supported by the local press) to have cattle- 
men ousted, Indians confined to allotments, and the greater part of 
the lands opened to Avhite settlement. On June 14, 1897, Joe Pooler, 
Councilman, and C. Charley Chisholm, Interpreter, sent the follow- 
ing communication to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs : ' ' We 
understand that exagent [sic] Day is desirous of being appointed 
agent under this administration of the Caddo and Delaware Indians 
of the Indian Territory. On the 14th day of June the Caddo and 
Delaware tribes held a joint council and it was then decided by said 
council that they did not want Day as agent, and would prefer, if 
no more suitable man could be found, that the present agent of the 
Caddos and Delawares be retained."^* 

On September 13, Quanah Parker, Chief of the Comanches, ad- 
dressed a five-page letter to General Nelson A. Miles stating that 
the "hearts of the Comanche and Kiowa Indians are feeling very 
bad at present OA'er the talk that Maj. Baldwin, our agent, is soon 
to leave us." After commenting on improved conditions under 
Baldwin's management, especially in matters of schools, the letter 
added: "When you see the President tell him it is a question of 
freedom with us. We are either to be slaves of the traders or men 
controlled by them ; or we are to be guided and led on the way to 
civilization by men he sends here for that purpose. ' ' In transmitting 
the letter to Bliss on October 15, Miles said: "The writer is a very 
intelligent Indian Chief, and a remarkably bright man. His state- 
ment that the Indians and the Agency were in a wretched condition 
a few years ago I know to be true. His statement that there has 
been a very great improvement under the management of Major 
Baldwin is also true, and I hope that the same management will be 
continued, and receive the support of the Department. "^^ On the 
letter is this penciled notation: "Ackge [acknowledge] and say no 
change anticipated." 

On April 16, 1898, Baldwin was assigned by the Adjutant Gen- 
eral's Office as Acting Inspector General, Department of Dakota. 
Miles on April 21 wrote Bliss a letter of one sentence: "I would 
be glad if you can expedite the affairs of Major Baldwin, in order 
that he can be relieved, as his services are required as an Inspector 
of one of the Divisions now in the field. "^^ On May 16, BaldAvin 

^'^ Ann. Report Sec. Int., 1897, H. Documents, 55 Cong. 2 sess., xii (3640) p. 
xxviii. 

18 The communication is in National Arcjiives, Int. Dept., Appt. Div., Ind. 
Agents, Kiowa, 1897-1907, Box 1220. 

19 Quanah Parker to Miles, Sept. 13, 1897; Miles to Bliss, Oct. 15, 1897, 
ibid.. Box 1220. 

20 Miles to Bliss, April 21, 1898; extracts of Special Orders 89 and 91, ibid.. 
Box 2119. See also Appt. Div., Register of Indian Agents, p. 67. 



Dissolution of the Wichita Reservation 



305 



relinquished his duties at the Eaowa agency, having served as acting 
agent since his appointment on October 29, 1894. 

In a hearing before the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in 1899 
a delegation of the Wichitas set forth that the agreement with the 
Cherokee Commission was false, asked that they be allowed to keep 
their reservation as it was, and urged that they be not confined to 
allotments of 160 acres.^^ "We cannot live," they said, "on 160 
acres of that dry prairie. Some years we raise a little corn, but 
nearly every year our crops fail. Then we have to depend upon 
cattle, and we cannot raise cattle upon such a small piece of land. 
*** We look around us and see other Indian tribes. Some of them 
have been alloted, and are trying to live like white men. They do 
not succeed. Seven years ago the Cheyennes and Arapahoes were 
a rich people. They had plenty of horses and cattle and were liv- 
ing peaceably and happy. The white man has come among them. 
They have been put on to little pieces of land; they have sold their 
horses, eaten up their cattle, and are hungry and naked. We are 
poor but we are not so poor as the Cheyennes, for we still have our 
land and can raise cattle. Nobody can raise cattle on 160 acres of 
land in our country." 

By 1899 the Court of Claims was coming to a conclusion in 
the case of the Wichita reservation in the Leased district, assigned 
to it four years earlier. Before the court the Wichitas asserted title 
to the whole of the Great Prairie which included a much greater 
area than the district. They asserted title to the district, including 
the Wichita reservation, upon rights of ancient possession, upon rec- 
ognition alleged to be contained in the treaty of Camp Holmes in 
1835, upon their removal from Texas in 1859 to the district, and 
upon rights acquired to the lands under the unratified agreement 
of 1872. The affiliated bands based their claims upon interests ac- 
quired in the Wichita title of occupancy and whatever other rights 
they had acquired under the alleged agreement made at Fort Ar- 
buckle on July 1, 1859. On January 9, 1899, the Court of Claims 
delivered an opinion of more than a hundred pages in which it was 
held that the Wichitas, not exceeding 1,060, were equitably entitled 
to allotments as provided in the agreement, but that the Choctaws 
and Chickasaws were the owners of the surplus lands. 

Nearly two years later, December 10, 1900, the Supreme Court 
of the United States in a unanimous opinion of some fifty pages 
directed that the decree of the Court of Claims should be reversed.^* 



21 A report of the interview, held on April 4, 1899, is in OIA, Special Case 
147, Kiowa Agency. 15978—1899. 

22 Choctaws at al. v. The United States et. al., 34 Ct. Cls., 46-47. 

23 34 Ct. Cls. 17. The figures limiting the number of allotments may be dis- 
regarded, since there were less than a thousand allotments. 

24 United States v. Choctaw Nation and Chickasaw Nation, 179 U. S. 494. 



306 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



The words "hereby cede," in the Choctaw and Chickasaw treaty 
of 1866, were held to have removed entirely all the rightful claim 
and title of the Choctaws and Chickasaws to lands of the Leased 
district. The Supreme Court did not feel bound to express any 
opinion upon the amount of compensation to which the Wichitas 
were entitled on account of the surplus lands of their reservation. 
The only guide given by Congress was that the compensation allowed 
in the suit for such lands should not exceed $1.25 an acre. Whether 
the lands should be valued at the date when the Indians located on 
the reservation, or the date the agreement of 1891 was ratified by 
Congress, or the date when the suit was brought, or the date when 
allotment should be completed, were points upon which the act of 
Congress was silent. Hence the court left "the amount to be fixed 
upon such evidence as may be adduced by the parties," not to ex- 
ceed $1.25 an acre. 

Before the Supreme Court, attorneys for the United States in- 
sisted that it should be made a condition of any decree recognizing 
the right to compensation on account of the surplus lands, that the 
Wichitas should execute a release to the United States to all right, 
title, interest and claim of every nature whatsoever in and to any 
lands within the limits of the United States except those allotted to 
them. The court did not adopt this view. The jurisdictional act 
limited the powers of the court to lands within the Wichita reser- 
vation. 

A mandate of the Supreme Court under date of January 12, 
1901, directed that the petition of the Choctaws and Chickasaws 
should be dismissed and that a decree should be made in behalf of 
the Wichitas fixing the amount of compensation to be made to them 
for the surplus lands. The decree, made on January 31, fixed com- 
pensation for lands reserved for schools, colleges and public build- 
ings at the maximum jprice.^^ For lands disposed of under the home- 
stead, townsite and mining laws of the United States, the Indians 
were to receive "the exact amount received therefor by the United 
States, not exceeding the sum of one dollar and twenty-five cents 
per acre." The Wichitas were entitled to allotments of 160 acres 
in accordance with the terms of the agreement. 

On January 16, 1901, five weeks after the Supreme Court had 
decided the case of the United States v. Choctaw Nation and Chick- 
asaw Nation, Commissioner Jones requested the Secretary of the 
Interior to give an authoritative decision as to whether it was com- 
petent for the government to proceed with the work of allotment. 
Secretary Hitchcock decided that the work could not legally be re- 
sumed until a conclusion was reached as to the rate to be paid the 



25 The decree is in S. Documents, 56 Cong. 2 sess., xiv (4042), no. 191, pp. 4-5. 
In regard to preparation of the decree, see Secretary Hitchcock to Att. Gen., Jan. 
29, 1901, OIA, Int. Dept., Ind. Aff., Misc., vol. Ill, pp. 939-941. 



Dissolution of the Wichita Reservation 



307 



Indians for the surplus lands.^^ The decree of the Court of Claims 
on January '61, in accordance with the decision of the Supreme 
Court, paved the way for the continuation of the work of allotment, 
and on February 15 the Department of the Interior directed that 
the work, discontinued in 1897, be resumed.-' In the following month 
Congress appropriated $20,000 to complete the same, and made pro- 
vision for the opening of the reservation together with that of the 
Iviowas, Comanches and Apaches.^* 

The allotting of lands on the Wichita reservation was less satis- 
factory than on the adjoining reservation to the south. Great ef- 
fort was made to complete the work before July 1 in order that the 
surplus lands might be opened at the same time as those of the 
Kiowa, Comanche and Apache reservation. Allotments were made 
between the middle of March and July 4. The work was begun in 
a hurry, was subjected to considerable confusion and was finished 
in a rush. 

On March 14 the Secretary of the Interior approved instructions 
for the guidance of Andrew J. Perry, William R. Kirkpatrick and 
Albert R. Museller who had been assigned the duty of making al- 
lotments to the Wichitas.^^ Perry had general charge and super- 
vision of the work. The agents were authorized to select lands for 
orphans; since the ninety day limit for the selection of allotments 
was considered inoperative, the Indians were to be given "reason- 
able time" in which to make their selections and the agents were 
instructed, whenever the work should be sufficiently progressed for 
them to do so, to report the date before which selections of such 
as were willing to make them could be completed. Persons who had 
selected allotments under the supervision of Agents Coleman and 
Mills might select other lands if they so desired. It was also held 
that those who wished to retain allotments made by these agents 
had such rights in the allotments as descends to heirs.^" 

Perry, Kirkpatrick and Museller came to the reservation with- 
out much previous knowledge of the business of allotment, and in 
the beginning Agent Randlett and Inspector Nesler gave them what 
assistance they could. In accordance with the plan followed by Nes- 
ler, the allotting agents instructed the Indians to go upon the lands 
they desired to select and remain there until the agents visited them. 
Scarcely was the plan launched when, on March 28, Special Allotting 
Agent John K. liankin was instructed to take temjjorary charge of 
the work and he instituted a different plan. Pie required the In- 

26 Hitchcock to Com. Ind. Aff., Jan. 17, 1901, OIA, Special Case 147, 3553— 
1901. 

27 Hitchcock to Com. Ind. Aff., Feb. 15, 1901, OIA, Special Case 147, 9853— 
1901. 

28 Acts of March 3, 1901, 31 Statutes, 1041; 1094. 

29 The instructions are in OIA, L. Letter Book 472, pp. 2-10. 

30 A. C. Tonner to Randlett, May 7, 1901, OIA, L. Letter Book 480, p. 424. 



308 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



dians "to come in" and make application for a survey and an al- 
lotment, and few of them were inclined to do so. Some camped for 
weeks on lands they desired to receive, not knowing of Rankin's in- 
structions. 

On April 2 a contract was executed between Acting Secretary 
Ryan and William F. Evans of Topeka, Kansas, whereby Evans, 
prior to June 1, was to do such surveying as was necessary in mak- 
ing allotments on the Wichita reservation.^^ On April 11 Agent Ran- 
kin wrote : ' ' The work of resurveying the Wichita reservation under 
the Evans contract, commences today, and we will start an allotting 
agent behind them tomorrow, and will follow their other parties as 
fast as they can get them here and to work."^^ The task seemed 
too great for the time prescribed. On May 3 Rankin reported that 
" a high pressure plan" would have to be devised to complete the 
work on time.^^ In accordance with his request he was given gen- 
eral supervision of the work on the following day."** A week later 
he referred to taking "some of the nonsense out of some of the 
men." On May 14 Acting Commissioner Tonner informed him by 
telegram that it was not imperative to group families. Although 
Tonner could ease the task and Rankin could be stern with his men, 
the weather remained uncontrolled. Rains descended and floods 
came. On May 21 Rankin reported that it had begun to rain on 
May 12 and for a week it had rained each day and night, streams 
had overflowed their banks, so that almost no work was done during 
the week. 

On the same day Assistant Commissioner William A. Richards 
of the General Land Office, who was then at Anadarko, Avrote that 
the prime cause of delay in the work of allotment on the Wichita 
reservation was "due to the fact that the force is very badly or- 
ganized and is practically without a head. "^^ He recommended that 
Rankin be removed and that Nesler be put in full charge. He said 
that Rankin seemed to be a well disposed man but had not grasped 
the situation at all. About the time Richards' letter reached Wash- 
ington, Rankin was ordered to proceed to the Crow reservation on 
June 1, and Nesler was directed to take full charge of the allotment 
work on the Wichita reservation at that date and to push the same 



31 The contract is in OIA Land. Div., Misc. Record Book v, pp. 106-107. In 
April, Agent Rankin estimated that the Evans people were employing or would 
employ about 105 men in the execution of the work. The survey was completed 
by June 1. 

32 Rankin to Com. Ind. Aff., April 11, 1901, OIA, Special Case 147, 19794— 
1901. 

33 Rankin to Com. Ind. Aff., May 3, 1901, OIA, Special Case 147, 24569—1901. 

34 Tonner to Rankin, May 4, 1901, OIA, L. Letter Book 480, p. 291. 

35 The telegram is in OIA, L. Letter Book 481, p. 411. 

36 Richards to Act. Sec. Thomas Ryan, May 21, 1901, OIA, Special Case 147, 
31122-1901. 



Dissolution of the Wichita Reservation 



309 



to earliest completion. Four hundred and eleven Indians were al- 
lotted under Rankin's supervision. On June 3, Rankin wrote to 
the Commissioner of Indian Affairs that Nesler "with his ample 
corps of clerks and small army of men" could complete the work 
in two Aveeks.'^^ On the same day Nesler informed the Commissioner 
that the work had been "poorly managed. "^^ 

The matter of arbitrary assignments was kept in mind. On 
April 27 Agent Perry reported that in his opinion by June 1 al- 
lotment to Indians who were willing to make selections could be 
completed.*" Three days later Agent Rankin suggested that the date 
be set at May 16. He observed that by that time ninety days 
would have elapsed since the order of February 15 directing that 
work be resumed. But Acting Commissioner Tonner considered June 
1 a more desirable date, since Indians should have reasonable time 
to make selections. And on May 6 Acting Secretary Ryan author- 
ized the assignment of allotments to those who had not voluntarily 
selected them before June l.'*^ 

Agent Perry reported that many of the Wichitas and some of 
the Caddoes had been counselling much among themselves, and he 
understood that the decision of many of the full bloods was to en- 
tirely ignore the allotting agents and to refuse to take allotments. 
Agent Rankin stated that there were some Indians among both the 
Wichitas and Caddoes who for various pretexts refused to take al- 
lotments, some because they had been filled by designing persons 
with the "Old Mexico Craze," others because they claimed that 
God had not told them to do so, while others were waiting word 
from a dead father. He said that in the usual hut slower way they 
might be induced to take allotments, but "under conditions govern- 
ing this allotment, there is neither time or need for waiting." He 



37 Ryan to Com. Ind. Aff., May 24, 1901, OIA, Special Case 147, 27731— 
1901; Tonner to Nesler, May 24, 1901, OIA, L. Letter Book 483, p. 94; telegram 
from Tonner to Nesler, May 27, 1901, ibid., p. 280. 

38 The letter is in OIA, Special Case 147, 30340—1901. 

39 Telegram of June 3, 1901, OIA, Special Case 147, 29409—1901. 

40 Perry to Com. Ind. Aff., April 27, 1901, OIA, Special Case 147, 23161—1901. 

41 Rankin to Com. Ind. Aff., April 30, 1901, OIA, Special Case 147, 23571— 
1901. 

42 Ryan to Com. Ind. Aff., May 6, 1901, OIA, Special Case 147, 24538—1901. 

The Stillwater Gazette on May 2, 1901, stated that the full bloods in contem- 
plation of moving to Mexico had sent a delegation to that country for the purpose 
of entering into an agreement with the Mexican authorities. Towaconie Jim was 
quoted as saying to "Chief Hitchcock": "We've always been friend of white man 
and Great White Father. We helped to fight his wars with white man. We go 
fight Kiowas, Comanches, Sioux, Apaches for him. We never cause him any 
trouble. He gave us our land to be ours as long as water runs and grass grows. 
Now he takes it away from us. He treat us bad. We now go somewhere else. 
White man can have land. We go down to Mexico and live. There Great White 
Father can not take our land. We no more fight his wars. We fight him if he 
comea down there." 



310 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



proposed to assign allotments, after June 1, to Indians without con- 
sulting them at all, while Acting Commissioner Richards and Agent 
Randlett predicted that this procedure would resiilt in serious trouble. 

On May 24 Agent Rankin estimated that one half or more of 
the Indians were holding out against making selections of land, but 
that by June 1 they would practically all agree to make selections 
of land and be allotted.^^ Acting Commissioner Tonner recommended 
that the Indians be allowed to make selections voluntarily after June 
1, but if they failed to do so allotments should be assigned to them.^* 
On June 8 Inspector Nesler estimated that arbitrary allotments 
would be 200 or less. At any rate the Indians in "many cases" 
declined to take allotments and were assigned lands.^^ 

On June 25, Inspector Nesler forwarded his final schedule*^ 
which was approved by the Department of the Interior on July 2. 
On the day of approval. Secretary Hitchcock instructed Agent Rand- 
lett to have certain persons claiming adoption into the Wichita tribe 
to make previous selections of land so that if upon due consideration 
their claims should be recognized, the matter of perfecting their al- 
lotments could be immediately consummated by telegram.^'^ On the 
following day a list of 27 adopted members was approved. On July 
4 Hitchcock directed Agent Randlett to "make allotments to them 
at once and as of today and they will be approved as of today. 
Do everything to complete the business as of this date, and it will 
be approved as of this date."*^ And the schedule was approved on 
that day .49 

One of the persons claiming adoption, and not included among 
the 27, was Willis C. West, a white man. It appears that he went 
among the Wichitas in 1882, married Cora Caruth (Ke-a-sun-ni-as), 
a Wichita on February 16, 1891, and signed the agreement for the 

43 Rankin to Com. Ind. Aff., May 24, 1901, OIA, Special Case 147, 28210— 
1901. On May 29 the Wichitas held a council on the subject of allotment of lands 
and payment for the surplus lands. Some of them, including To-wac-o-nie Jim, 
urged delay since they entertained hopes of making a new agreement with the 
government. The proceedings of the council, a document of a dozen pages, is in 
OIA, Special Case 147, 31463 — 1901. As Agent Randlett said, "nothing import- 
ant appears therein," except that the document reveals the mental condition of the 
Indians at the time. 

Tonner to Nesler, June 6, 1901, OIA, L. Letter Book 485, p. 57. 

45 Randlett to Com. Ind. Aff., Sept. 1, 1901, Indian Affairs 1901, Pt. i, p. 320. 
Randlett said that they appeared to be satisfied with lands assigned to them. 

46 Nesler to Com. Ind. Aff., June 25, 1901, OIA, Special Case 147, 34170—1901. 

47 Tel. of July 2, 1901, OIA, Special Case 147, 35975—1901. 

48 Tel. of July 4, 1901, OIA, Int. Dept., Ind. Aff., Misc., vol. 114, p. 67. The 
telegram lists the names of the 27 persons. A list of persons who applied for en- 
rollment, including their qualifications, is in Hitchcock to Com. Ind. Aff., July 
3, 1901, ibid, pp. 33-56. See also Com. W. A. Jones to Sec. Int., Jully 4, 1901, 
OIA, L. Letter Book 490, pp. 90-91. 

49 Hitchcock to Com. Ind. Aff., July 6, 1901, OIA, Special Case 147, 36147— 
1901. 



Dissolution of the Wichita Reservation 



311 



dissolution of the reservation the same year ; that his name first ap- 
peared upon the tribal rolls in 1894, where it probably did not be- 
long and where it remained four years; that the strongest defense 
for his name being on the rolls was a favorable vote of 92 to 24 
taken in the "Wichita council in March, 1897.^" 

When West sought to have his name restored to the rolls, Acting 
Commissioner A. C. Tonner reviewed the case at length and con- 
cluded : "I do not think that the reasons given — residence with the 
Indians since 1882 and marriage into the tribe in 1891 — in the ab- 
sence of evidence to show any consideration or services rendered the 
tribe, are such as should entitle him to receive benefits with the 
Wichitas. Agent Randlett considered West highly respectable, 
and recommended approval of his adoption into the tribe. The Wich- 
ita council on May 21, 1901, voted 34 to 5 for his adoption. Never- 
theless on July 3 Hitchcock gave the following decision: "The wife 
and children will receive allotments with the Indians, and as appli- 
cant does not live with the tribe, and seems well to do, he should 
take his chances with other outsiders when the lands are opened to 
homestead entry, and the application of Willis C. West for enroll- 
ment by adoption with the Wichita tribe is denied. "^^ 

Thus the Secretary of the Interior reached and announced a 
decision that West was not a member of the tribe, and thereupon 
denied his application for an allotment. The Secretary raised no 
question of laAv, but simply stood on his authority, and put forward 
his decision as final.^^ West carried the case to the Supreme Court 
of the United States in an unsuccessful effort to secure the issue of a 
mandamus requiring the Secretary to approve the allotment selected. 
Concerning his decision the Secretary did not disclose to the court 
any statement of the reasons purporting to be exhaustive and com- 
plete; and the court held that it could not make an inquisition into 
his mental processes to see whether the reasons were correct.^* 



50 Council Proceedings, March 23 and 24, 1897, S. Documents, 53 Cong. 1 sess., 
iv (3561), no. 53, p. 12. 

51 Tonner to Sec. Int., April 18, 1901, OIA, L. Letter Book 477, pp. 415-424. 
See also Com. Browning to Sec. Int., June 7, 1895, ibid., vol. 307, pp. 372-381. 

52 Hitchcock to Com. Ind. Aff., July 3, 1901, OIA, Int. Dept., Ind. Aff., Misc., 
vol. 114, pp. 52-53. 

The Stillwater Gazette, August 8, 1901, stated that 25 persons who claimed to 
be members of the Caddo tribe and "who were rejected allotments," in Wichita 
country, had brought suit against the United States government asking to be allotted. 
It stated that the said persons had sued for 150,000 damages for having been ejected 
from the tribe; and had chosen some excellent portions of the Wichita lands and 
asked that same be given to them as their property. 

53 Hitchcock's statement or, "Return to Rule to Show Cause," is in Justice 
Dept., Records and Briefs, Oct. Term 1906, no. 194. This transcript of record in- 
cludes important documents on the West case. 

54 West v. Hitchcock, 205 U. S. 80 (1907). 



312 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



Speaking for the court, JiTstiee Holmes said : ' ' The approval of 
the Secretary required by the agreement must include as one of 
its elements the recognition of the applicant's right. If a mere out- 
sider were to make a claim, it would have to be rejected by someone, 
and the Secretary is the natural if not the only person to do it. 
No list or authentic determination of the parties entitled is referred 
to by the agreement, so as to narrow the Secretary's duty to identi- 
fication or questions of descent in case of subsequent death. The 
right is conferred upon the members of the bands, but the ascer- 
tainment of membership is left wholly at large. No criteria of adop- 
tion are stated. The Secretary must have authority to decide on 
membershir) in a doubtful case, and if he has it in any case he has 
it in all. Ftirthermore, as his decision is not a matter of any par- 
ticular form, his answer saying that he has decided the case is enough. 
. . . We doubt if Congress meant to open an appeal to the courts 
in all cases where an applicant is dissatisfied. Of course the promise 
of the United States that there shall be allotted one hundred and 
sixty acres to each member of the Wichita band may be said to 
confer an absolute right upon every actual member of the band. But 
someone must decide who the members are. We already have ex- 
pressed the oninion that the primary decision must come from the 
Secretary. There is no indication of an intent to let applicants go 
farther." 

On July 4 President McKinley issued a proclamation opening 
the Wichita reservation and that of the Kiowas, Comanches and 
Apaches to settlement on August 6. During the year the Secretary 
approved 965 allotments on the Wichita reservation. Looking over 
the matter several years later, the Office of Indian Affairs stated 
that on the reservation 152,714 acres were allotted to 957 Indians, 
and 586,468 acres were opened to white settlement. Lands reserved 
for agency, school, religious and other purposes amounted to 4,151 
acres. 

On the issuance of the decree by the Court of Claims on Janu- 
ary 31, 1901, Andrew A. Lipscomb, attorney for the Wichitas, at- 
tempted to secure prompt payment for the lands to be used for 
educational and building purposes. Due to the uncertain area of 
the indemnity school lands that might be selected on the reservation, 
the amount due the Indians was indefinite but the Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs and the Secretary of the Treasury recommended that 
Congress appropriate $102,673.51 of which only the necessary part 



55 Report Sec. Int., 1901, H. Documents, 57 Cong. 1 sess., xxii (4289), p. xxiv, 
Ind. Aff., 1908, p. 161. The schedules of allotments for the Wichitas are in the 
Office of Indian Affairs. 

^^Ind. Aff., 1913, vol. ii, 84. 

57 Lipscomb to Sec. Int., Feb. 1, 1901, 5. Documents, 56 Cong. 2 sess., xiv(4042), 
no. 191, pp. 5-6. 



Dissolution of the Wichita Reservation 



313 



should be expended. But Congress took no action on the matter 
until after the reservation was opened to white settlement. 

By act of May 27, 1902, Congress appropriated the sum of 
$43,332.93, or so much thereof as might be necessary, for payment 
to the attorneys for the Wichitas under the contract of May, 1895.^^ 
The attorneys were paid during the fiscal year, 1902. L. J. Gage, 
Secretary of the Treasury, had brought to the attention of Congress 
in a definite manner the matter of payment for lands used for edu- 
cational purposes and public buildings."^" The ninety-eighth meri- 
dian, forming the eastern boundary of the reservation, had been re- 
established by survey approved on July 24, 1901. The sum neces- 
sary to pay the price named in the decree of the Court of Claims 
for the school lands and lands for public buildings was $99,514.56, 
and the area of the land was 79,611.65 acres. This was at the rate 
of $1.25 an acre — the price finally paid to the Wichitas for their 
surplus lands. The sum of $99,514.56 was appropriated by act of 
Congress on July 1, 1902.^^ In accordance with a further provision 
of the act, and the decision of the Secretary of the Interior, $15,000 
of the sum appropriated was paid to the administrator of the estate 
of Luther H. Pike for services rendered as a delegate of the Wich- 
itas.^2 

The Court of Claims entered judgment for $675,371.91 in favor 
of the AVi(jJ;iitas and affiliated bands for the surplus lands in their 
reservation, which was paid.**^ The first money accruing to the 
Wichitas under the judgment was $160,874.44. Of this amount $43,- 
332.93 was used to reimburse the United States for money paid the 
attorneys for legal services under the contract of May, 1895. The 
Wichitas were paid for the surplus lands more than fifty cents an 
acre first offered by the Cherokee Commission because their leaders 
had held out for a higher price during the negotiations with the 
Commission in 1891 and for the right to employ legal counsel. 



58 Jones to Sec. Int., Feb. 11, 1901, OIA, L. Letter Book 468, p. 317 ; L. J. Gage 
to the President of the Senate, Feb. 25, 1901, S. Documents, loc..cit., pp. 1-2. The 
Area was estimated at 82,138.81 acres. 

59 32 Statutes, 267. 

60 Gage to Speaker of House of Representatives, Jan. 7, 1902, H. Documents, 
57 Cong. 1 sess., lxx(4337), no. 203. 

61 32 Statutes, Ft. i, 583. 

62 The collection and disbursement of monies under the agreement of June 4, 
1891, are set forth in Gen. Accounting Office Report, In Re: Petition of the Wichitas 
and Affiliated Bands of Indians and the Intervening Petition of the Caddo Band of 
Indians, Ct. Cls., No. E. 542, pp. 89-114. A copy is in the National Archives. See 
also legal briefs, Ct. Cls., Printed Records, vol. 757, No. E. 542. In regard to the 
services rendered by Pike, see Com. Browning to Sec. Int., Feb. 19, 1897, OIA, 
L. Letter Book 348, pp. 414-417. 

63 Wichita Indians et al. v. United States, 89 Ct. Cls. 418 (1939). 



314 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



For good or ill, the dissolution of the Wichita reservation into 
fragments of about 160 acres was inevitable near the close of the 
nineteenth century.^* The Wiehitas could do little more than con- 
tend for the principle of holding their lands in common, a principle 
unpopular among most white men and set forth awkwardly in a 
tongue foreign to the Indians. 



64 "Federal real estate comprises one-fifth of the land area of the United States 
— equal in extent to 21 eastern States," said a joint committee of Congress in 1943. 
See, "Federal Ownership of Real Estate," 78 Cong. 1 sess., Sen. Doc. no. 130, 

Parts I and II of "Dissolution of the Wichita Reservation" ■ by Dr. Berlin B. 
Chapman, appearing in The Chronicles beginning with the summer number for 
1944, have been adapted for publication in this quarterly magazine from the original 
manuscript submitted by the author to the Oklahoma Historical Society. — M.H.W. 



Rural School Houses in Early Oklahoma 



315 



RURAL SCHOOL HOUSES IN EARLY OKLAHOMA 

By F. A, Balyeat 

Many pioneer farmers in botti Oklahoma and Indian Territories 
first lived in make-shift dwellings. They planned to improve and 
enlarge these as soon as possible or else replace them with better 
structures. In most districts the first school houses were like the 
farm homes, — smaU, temporary, and in most respects inadequate. 

The size of the district and the location of the school house 
varied greatly. In Indian Territory the district grew up around a 
settlement, the size of which was changed from time to time, a creek 
or river or, later, a railroad or some irregular line marking the 
boundaries of the district. Sparsely settled areas often needed large 
districts in order to justify a school. In Oklahoma Territory the 
original plan was the township system with four districts, each three 
miles square. The township system never really functioned, the 
three-mile-square district plan being the approximate pattern in most 
regions. 

At first there was no public money provided, or at least not yet 
available, to purchase a site or erect and equip a building. Prior 
to 1907, on the Indian Territory side, most schools began with the 
needs and desires of one or more public-spirited families with chil- 
dren of their own whose education was neglected. Sometimes the 
school began with one family, larger or more ambitious than the 
'others, Avho would erect a small school house on their farm, often in 
their yard. This was primarily for their children but was shared 
with others. A very common means of beginning would be a public 
meeting called by a small group of interested parents. Then and 
there plans would be discussed for organizing and equipping a school. 
Teacher's salary and cost of erecting and equipping the building 
would be raised by the parents concerned. Often this was donated. 
Sometimes it was prorated in proportion to the children sent. Sup- 
plementary income often came from benefit programs, such as box 
suppers or other entertainment. There was no legal provision for 
raising or handling these monies, each community trusting its leaders, 
and rarely disappointed in their confidence. 

In Oklahoma Territory it was different. From the beginning, 
as each of the several areas was opened to settlement, there was some 
legal provision for financing schools. But it took time for the tax 
money to accrue. And even then the raising of bond money to pro- 
vide school houses was a slow process. So it was often a few years 
before there was a building and site provided by public money. In 



316 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



the meantime the interested patrons temporarily provided varied 
and meager school houses. 

As suggested above, the location of the building was often de- 
termined by the convenience of the majority of the children con- 
cerned. Often, though, the most aggressive or influential parents 
maneuvered to locate it to favor their interests. Frequently the land 
was not given by the owner, but merely lent until a site was regu- 
larly purchased. 

Sometimes a building already available determined the site. The 
author attended a school in a Lincoln County district where the first 
three houses used were not on publicly owned land. The first was 
in a small "box" house, made of native lumber, and used by the 
owner as a dwelling during the six months that she must live there 
before "proving up" and returning to her home in Kansas. This 
was far to one side of the district, but the only house available the 
first year. The next year another pioneer, a bachelor, vacated his 
residence in the same way, making available a school house near 
the center of the district. The third year the patrons donated lo- 
cally available building material and the labor and a few dollars 
needed to erect a school house. This was on lent land, and was 
used nearly four years. In some districts an abandoned store build- 
ing, restaurant, or even barn or hay-barn was used until a more 
suitable structure could be provided. 

There are numerous cases on record of a school's being held in 
part of a farm residence, the father, or more likely the mother, being 
the teacher. Rarely, though, was one room of such a house set aside 
for school purposes. More often the furniture of one room was 
pushed aside during the day and then replaced at night for home 
uses. In some cases the teacher lived in a loft over the school room. 
Of course, these were the smaller schools, often the brief beginnings 
of schools that later had more suitable buildings and facilities pro- 
vided. 

The materials used in constructing and equipping the school 
houses varied with the regions and their locally available supplies. 
In the prairie areas it was not uncommon to use a tent while a build- 
ing was under way. Numerous are the reported complaints of the 
trouble that the teacher had to keep the tent in place or in shape 
because of the high winds. In timbered regions brush arbors were 
sometimes used in spring, summer, or early fall. These provided 
shade and reasonable protection from rain. Many Sunday Schools 
were held under brush arbors and it was the natural thing to use 
these as make-shifts for school buildings. 

One Indian Territory community was fortunate in having a 
wide rock ledge beneath which a small group of children and their 



Rural School Houses in Early Oklahoma 



317 



teacher were protected from sun and rain. As in the case of the 
arbors, ventilation was not a problem. 

In a few districts rock was used in building the school houses, 
especially when it was near the sitrfaee and in such formations as 
would require very little quarrying and dressing. For such build- 
ings, labor was about the only cost and this was donated. 

There were literally hundreds of Oklahoma Territory pioneer 
schools held in the dugouts, the sod-house (soddies), or a combina- 
tion of the two types. Many prairie families lived in such struc- 
tures. Some such houses were dug out of a creek bank but most 
were on level land and at a place convenient to a sufficient number 
of the children to support a school financially. In the largest dis- 
tricts, the more sparsely settled ones, fathers drew furrows from 
home to school to enable the children to find their way to school and 
back in blizzards and blinding snow storms. Some of these children 
reported annoyance from their coyote chaperons. 

A real dugout was what is ordinarily called a cave, so common 
in the western part of Oklahoma where protection is needed from 
tornados. Such an excavation was usually covered over with a roof 
made of poles, brush, straw, and dirt. This provided protection 
from all sorts of weather until horses or cattle walked over the roof 
and damaged it. Such a place called for very little building ma- 
terials that were not locally obtainable or for labor that the farmers 
could not donate. Some had roofs sufficiently steep and high that 
a window was possible in the gable opposite the door end, or even 
over the door. ' " ' 

The door to such a place was usually at the bottom of steps, 
probably dirt steps, or with thin sheet rocks set into the dirt. Na- 
tive boards or scraps from shipping boxes made a suitable door which 
hung unsqueakingly on leather hinges, cut from some farmer's boot. 
The latch, likewise, was improvised from wood and leather, under 
the magic of a jack-knife. Hardware costs were kept low. 

Like many of the prairie residences, most of the school houses 
in those regions were wholly or partly above ground, with the walls 
made of sods. Ground that was mowed or grazed close was so full 
of grass roots that it held together strongly. A farmer would bring 
his sod plow and "break" a small patch near the school house site. 
With spade or ax these long sods were cut in portable lengths, carried 
or carted by the men, and laid up in walls, rather even and plumb. 

These were roofed over much as were the diTgouts. A crude 
beam, often salvaged from somewhere, made a good plate for topping 
the sod wall and providing a base for such crude rafters as could 
be had. Again, poles, brush, hay, and dirt made the roof. Win- 
dow frames were easily placed in these sod walls and closed with 



318 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



whatever materials were then available, awaiting the time when there 
would be a window with glass panes. 

Walls and floors of these sod school houses were usually of dirt. 
Sometimes cheese cloth or burlap, if available, made the walls more 
sightly and useful. Such material, when tacked under the rafters, 
helped a little to catch the droppings of earth and prevent their fall- 
ing down on the pupils. Some of the floors, especially in the dug- 
outs, were at levels where clay could be smoothed and hardened into 
a pretty good surface. Sometimes clay was brought in for this pur- 
pose. Often this was covered, but usually not. Dust from the floor 
was a problem except in rainy weather when inevitable roof leaks 
turned the dust to little mud puddles scattered here and there over 
the room. 

Later buildings that were framed and ceiled had their problems 
from wood peckers which drilled their way through the outer wall 
boards, went inside to some other location inaccessible to teacher 
and pupils, and then started to drill their way through ceiling boards 
to educational opportunity within. They preferred to do this trip- 
hammer drilling during school hours, to the annoyance of the teacher 
and the amusement of the pupils. The dirt houses had their inter- 
ruptions from other forms of animal life. Spiders, tarantulas, centi- 
pedes, and even an occasional snake, chose these soddies or dugouts 
for their comfortable abodes. The stings of these were painful, some- 
times poisonous, and caused teachers and parents no little concern. 

Such dirt buildings were reasonably cool in summer and were 
warmer in winter than most buildings, hut some sort of supplemen- 
tary heat was essential. Fireplaces were not very practical or com- 
mon. A box stove would be provided by the patrons, but fuel was 
a troublesome item to secure. After corn crops were grown the cobs 
made fairly good fuel, but needed to be supplemented. Sometimes 
coal or wood could be hauled, as was done for the prairie farm homes. 
More often than is usually known, the very early schools burned 
cattle- and buffalo chips, gathered by the boys from the regions 
near by. 

Most of the Indian Territory and a minor part of Oklahoma 
Territory had sufficient timber, often of a poor grade, to make log 
houses or else frame buildings built of lumber locally obtained and 
sawed at a mill nearby. Like most of the farm homes, the majority 
of the log houses were made of logs laid horizontally, with notched 
corners that made the building firm. Height of trees that were ob- 
tainable in a region often determined the size and shape of a build- 
ing. Sometimes the bark was peeled from these logs; often it was 
left on. This took less time and usually indicated what was meant 
for a temporary building, but often used much longer than was in- 
tended. 



Rural School Houses in Early Oklahoma 



319 



Hewed log school houses were fairly common. Dressing the 
upper and lower surfaces made a better fitting and warmer wall. 
Dressing the inner surface made more sightly and convenient school 
room walls. But to hew the outer wall meant that the pioneers were 
taking more interest in their schools. Local pride often demanded 
a hewed log building. The broad-ax was not uncommonly owned 
by these farmers and made possible these hewed log buildings. 

Such logs, at best, left cracks between them that had to be 
"chinked" and "daubed" with whatever materials were available. 
Split sticks were sized and shaped to meet the need and driven into 
cracks between the logs so as to fill most of the apertures. If lime 
and sand were available real mortar was used to daub the cracks, 
both inside and out, and made a fairly smooth and presentable sur- 
face. Lacking these, mud from the most usable, locally obtained 
dirt was used. One Love County school house was air-conditioned 
in summer by removing the chinking and daubing. In the fall these 
were replaced and the house kept warm in winter. 

The third term that the author attended in Lincoln County 
was in a stockade, sometimes called "picket", type of building. 
Smaller and shorter logs could be used because they were stood on 
end, toe-nailed to beams that made the sills of the house. Again, 
the extent of hewing varied. Almost any size or shape house could 
be had with this plan. This building was daubed with lime-made 
mortar that would have stayed in almost indefinitely had it not 
been picked out by the boys. The outside, when picked off, made 
excellent ammunition for throwing at rabbits and at other boys; 
the inside, for flipping across the room during school, the favorite 
target being the teacher's derby that hung on the front wall. 

Some of the log houses had dirt floors, sometimes pine hauled 
long distances, but more often native lumber, locally sawed. This 
was not smoothed and left large cracks down which slate pencils 
had a way of getting lost, and through which notes coidd be safely 
stuffed. After one of these buildings had been used four terms the 
floor was taken up and replaced. The author, along with some other 
boys, found much interesting school "history" in the notes thus 
hidden. Such floors had many splinters. Barefoot children attended 
summer school and the teacher not infrequently had to stop a reci- 
tation to pick a splinter from a dirty-footed lad who came hopping 
to the front of the room for first aid. Some floors were made of 
puncheon. 

Most of the roofs of log and frame houses were shingled; some 
were made of long boards with narrow "bats" to cover the cracks. 
Some of these native boards warped badly, leaving uncurably leaky 
roofs. Often the shingles were clap boards, "rived" from local tim- 
ber. Oak was the wood most commonly used for these. The fro, a 



320 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



large knife set at right angles to the handle and driven through the 
block with a mallet, was the tool used for making such boards. Na- 
tive lumber was used for the sheathing. These clap boards made 
warm roofs, but almost invariably leaked. Seldom were these houses 
ceiled overhead. Poles were often used to help make the building 
steady and to be used as joists for ceiling boards, if and when they 
became available or the farmer patrons got around to putting them on. 

Both dirt houses and log houses were erected wholly by donated 
labor. Their construction was a social event of no little import- 
ance. At an open season when the farm work best permitted, a 
few days in succession would be "taken off" for building the new 
school house, the number of days depending on the size and nature 
of the house and the number of interested families. The men would 
plow, cut, and carry the sods or cut, haul, and prepare the logs. 
Laying them up would be left to a few with most experience in 
building. Likewise would follow floor, roof, windows, and doors. 

The women served the meals those days, each preparing food at 
home and warming it up on the grounds while the coffee was pre- 
pared. With such work the community spirit and neighborhood ties 
grew. Pioneers were inescapably dependent on each other for many 
materials and services. These social contacts, added to the com- 
munity spending, and planning and sacrificing, made real commun- 
ities of these settlements. The school house became the center of 
this local tuait. 

And such buildings were much more than school houses. In 
them union Sunday Schools were organized. Preaching, when talent 
could be had, was at this center. "Protacted meetin's" were held 
there or in a brush arbor near by, if in summer. The nearest creek 
or pond provided baptismal facilities. Box suppers and pie suppers 
were common, the receipts generally used to provide needed school 
supplies and equipment. Oil lamps, hung against the walls in re- 
flector brackets, were thus bought for night gatherings. Curtains 
were made for the front of the room to care for the dramatic num- 
bers and for the school programs. Sometimes library books, maps, 
and globes could be secured with the supper receipts long before 
tax money was available for them. The literary society was a very 
common social and educational event. Readings, dramatics, orations, 
music, debates, jig dancing, gossipy "papers", and similar items 
provided the opportunities for training teachers, preachers, lawyers, 
and politicians before enough formal education was provided. The 
Grange often met there, as did the Anti-Horse-Thief Association. 
These two organizations were not so popular with teachers because 
of the condition of the stove and floor area around it when school 
needed the house the next morning, after a dozen or so active but 
in-expert tobacco spitters had sat around the stove the night before. 



Rural School Houses in Early Oklahoma 



321 



Few school houses had wells. A spring or creek nearby or a 
farmer's well was the source of water supply. The larger boys, by 
two's, would get permission to carry the water. A gourd or tin 
dipper stayed in the bucket and was used by all drinkers. On hot 
days the bucket was passed up and down the aisles during school, 
pupils admonished to take small amounts so that when thirst was 
quenched less would need to be put back in the bucket. Pupils 
who became thirsty between passings and recesses held up one fin- 
ger and got permission to visit the water bucket. 

Sometimes two fingers were raised, seeking permission to "speak" 
to another pupil, or three fingers, asking to go to the teacher's desk 
to have a word pronounced. Four fingers meant permission to be 
"excused" from the room, the boys going over the hill in one di- 
rection from the school house and the girls in the other. In a few 
years the more progressive districts built outhouses. 

Manufactured blackboards were uncommon for several years. 
Three twelve-inch smooth pine boards that matched fairly well made 
a pretty good writing surface, when coated with an improvised paint, 
usually made of linseed oil and lamp black. This got shiny very 
quickly and needed repair much oftener than occurred. Discarded 
socks or old coat sleeves made good erasers. Sometimes a paint- 
coated cloth was nailed to a ceiled wall or board background and 
used for a blackboard. Crayon was rarely wasted. 

Penmanship copies and other written assignments were put on 
the board by the teacher for the pupils to do on their slates. Tablets 
were few and expensive. Slates were as everlasting as they were 
dirty and squeaky, but they were convenient, especially the double 
slates. Compositions, problems, sentences, and maps could be care- 
fully prepared and folded inside until read by the teacher. Fas- 
tidious girls brought little bottles of soapsuds and little rags for 
cleaning their slates. Boys were more ingenious. They would spit 
on the slate surface, rub it clean with palms, and then dry with 
sleeves. Slate pencils, wrapped with red and white striped paper, 
made good Christmas gifts. 

But school houses needed seats and desks for teacher and pupils, 
as well as longer benches at the front of the room for classes to use 
in turn while other classes prepared their lessons. "Class excused" 
was the signal for one group to return to seats to study and im- 
mediately "B-Geography, turn, rise, pass" meant that the next 
group was ready for its ten or twelve minute recitation. The heavy 
shoes, and especially the boots, caused much confusion during this 
exchange of classes. 

Few pioneer schools purchased either desk or chair for the 
teacher. If living in the district she, or more probably he, brought 
a chair from home. If the teacher could not provide it some patron 



322 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



gave or loaned a chair. Sometimes a crude table was provided in 
the same way, rarely with drawer or other storage space. Often a box 
was used for a desk, or even a block of a log, supported by three 
or four wooden legs set in augur holes. Sometimes the teacher's 
chair was of this home-made type. 

Pupils' seats and desks were a bigger problem for all concerned. 
At least one case is reported of a prairie district which began school 
with each pupil sitting on a bale of hay with two bales in front of 
him for a desk. Very common was the use of native lumber boards 
nailed to cross timbers or to blocks which served as legs. Books 
and slate were laid on the seat beside the pupil or on the floor be- 
neath. The pupil's knees served as his desk. Sometimes a table 
was provided for the pupils to stand at and do their more import- 
ant written work, patiently waiting their turns for such standing 
space. 

In timbered regions split or hewed logs made the deskless seats 
for the pupils. Augur holes bored partly through this slab made 
good places to insert the pole legs. These seats were as substantial 
as they were uncomfortable. As in the case of the board seats, the 
seat or the floor was used for a book depository. Most pupils carried 
all their books back and forth each day in sacks suspended from 
the shoulder. Teachers in these schools were discreetly silent about 
proper posture and rounded shoulders. 

Some more enterprising or able parents made for their own 
children seats with backs. No desks, though, in the very early days. 
The author attended a rural school in Logan County where the ma- 
jority sat on the district-provided board benches. The children, a 
small majority, whose parents made benches for them with backs, 
were considered rather aristocratic and either envied or teased by 
the other pupils. That was about the only class distinction, for 
nearly all pioneers were "broke" when they reached Oklahoma and 
stayed that way through the difficult 'nineties. 

For a good many years the school bell was not heard in most 
districts. To "call school" the teacher might "ring" the fire shovel 
with the poker or rap with a big barlow knife on the door. A few 
teachers had cow horns properly cut and polished and they learned 
to blow them to call the pupils to "books." 

And those books! Parents sent whatever texts they or their 
older children had used "back in the States." Nothing could be 
done but to use them, varied as they were. Gradually, though, Ray's 
arithmetic, McGuffey's readers and spellers. Barnes' histories and 
geographies, and Steele's physiology became fairly uniform. No 
library or other supplementary materials were known for several 
years, and then meager and highly prized. Books loaned by the 



Rural School Houses in Early Oklahoma 



323 



rare and small home libraries sometimes enriched the school's study 
materials. 

Out of these meager facilities came little book learning, as such, 
especially with the three month terms, and so poorly attended. But 
much good and greatly needed education did result. These meager 
opportunities were really more appreciated by most parents and 
children than when school facilities grew better and more common. 
Inventiveness and ingenuity often result from lack of what is needed 
or wanted. Parents and pupils devised and improvised in ways 
that developed abilities and skills which the pioneer needed. Con- 
sidering the shortage of material facilities, the short terms taught 
by teachers with so little training, and drawing twenty to thirty 
dollars a month (minus the usual discount for delayed tax payments) 
— these meager provisions really brought big and valuable results. 
The school was a most important part of pioneer life. 



324 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



CHEROKEE OCCUPANCE IN THE OKLAHOMA 
OZARKS AND PRAIRIE PLAINS 

By Leslie Hewes 

It is well known that the natural character of a region has an 
important bearing on the human development taking place in it. 
However, the appraisal of the worth of a land depends not only on 
the land, but also on the people. The opinion held of a land is, 
accordingly, an expression of individual and group culture. The re- 
gional evaluation commonly has to be revised with the passing of 
time. Such changes in appraisal affect the development of the re- 
gion and in turn are affected by such development. 

The process of taking over and living in an area, together with 
the modifications in the former landscape resulting, has been called 
occupance. In order to understand current occupance forms, in- 
cluding that very objective expression of occupance, the landscape, 
the geographer must make use of historical materials. The man-land 
relationships at a given time in a given area commonly depend on 
what has been done in the area in the past.^ Direct relict cultural 
forms, such as habitations, land rights, and land use, may through 
historical lag outlive their reason for being. Also important is the 
conditioning of future occupance modes, as by the establishment of 
a particular group of people, the introduction of certain modes of 
life, and by the enhancing of regional resource values or their re- 
duction. A series of man-land relations, considered in order of time 
has been called sequent occupance.'^ Sequent occupance is thus a 
phase of historical geography. 

Figure 1. The Cherokee Nation, showing modern counties and major 
physical divisions. (By courtesy of Economic Geography) 

It is the purpose of this paper to compare and contrast the se- 
quent occupance of the two unlike "halves" of the Cherokee Nation, 
in what is now northeastern Oklahoma, divided, approximately, by 
the Grand (or Neosho) and Arkansas rivers (Fig. 1). To the east 
is the Ozark region^ ; to the west are the Prairie Plains. The former 



1 Carl 0. Sauer, "Foreword to Historical Geography", The Annals of the Asso- 
ciation of American Geographers, XXXI (1941, pp. 1-24. 

2Derwent Whittlesey, "Sequent Occupance", Ibid., XIX (1929), pp. 162-165; 
Richard Elwood Dodge, "The Interpretation of Sequent Occupance," Ibid.^ XXVIII 
(1938), pp. 233-237. 

3 Leslie Hewes, "The Oklahoma Ozarks as the Land of the Cherokees," The 
Geographical Review, XXXII (1942), pp. 269-281, contains a summary of Cherokee 
occupance in the eastern half, with but little concern with inter-regional contrasts. 



Cherokee Occupance in the Oklahoma Ozarks and Prairie Plains 325 




Figure 1. The Cherokee Nation, showing modern counties and major physical 
divisions. (By courtesy of Economic Geography) 

was chiefly wooded ; the latter was covered in the main by tall grass. 
As divided by the rivers the regional areas were, respectively, about 
3,100 and 3,700 square miles. Basic in the study is the revised eval- 
uation of regional opportunities and limitations made, perhaps un- 
consciously, by the inhabitants. Here, interest is centered on the 
changing appraisals, and the occupance forms resulting, made by the 
Cherokees themselves and others in the period of Cherokee control. 

THE PIONEER APPEAISAL 
The new homeland to which the Cherokees came, chiefly between 
1818 and 1839, was considered large and accessible, with varied and 
abundant resources. Such was the opinion of government officials, 
of advocates of removal, and of disinterested observers, alike. 

Generally speaking the country to the east of the Grand River 
(and of the Arkansas to the south of the Grand confluence), here 
called Cherokee Ozarks, was preferred by the early Cherokees. It 
had more varied and readily usuable resources than the extensive 
prairies to the west. Moreover, the eastern, wooded region had many 
resemblances to the old homeland about the southern Appalachians. 
Common features included a climate with hot summers and cool 
winters, extensive woods open enough to permit the growth of grass, 
many sources of water in springs and streams, and small bodies of 
fertile soil in rough or stony surroundings. In addition, the east- 
ern portion of the new homeland had other advantages, including 
abundant game, salt springs, and the Arkansas River waterway. 



326 



Chronictes of Oklahoma 



Althougli some of the earliest settlement was made on accessible 
valley lands of the Arkansas and its tributaries, the headwaters of 
tributaries on the limestone upland, near the Arkansas border, were 
shortly more esteemed. Delaware, Groing Snake, and Flint districts 
(or civil divisions), all located there, were long the most populous 
portions of the Cherokee Ozarks, and, accordingly, of the entire 
Cherokee Nation. The many dependable springs in the limestone 
area help to explain this preference. At the outset, it seems reason- 
able to assume, Cherokees making the difficult overland trip of the 
Trail of Tears, tended to stop just over the Arkansas line. Later, 
nearness to the boundary continued to be an advantage, probably 
because of the superior trade centers and of the skill of craftsmen 
of the comparatively populous Arkansas communities. 

The western prairies were left in the main unsettled until after 
the Civil War. In the absence of census records, such data as church 
membership and distribution of public schools may be taken to in- 
dicate distribution of population. The small number of members 
in the Southern Methodist missions, or circuits, to the west is prob- 
ably representative of the meagre population. In 1862, for example, 
74 members were reported for the Canadian circuit and 34 for the 
Big Bend and Verdigris circuit in a total of 1,885,* with the western 
area, thus having less than 6 percent of the total membership. In 
1858 of the 21 public schools in the Nation^ only two, (Mount Clere- 
mont, near the present Claremore, and Canadian River) could be 
identified as western. Thus it would appear that shortly before the 
Civil War the Cherokee Ozarks still had a density of population 
more than ten times as great as that of the Prairie Plains. 

Preference for wooded lands by early pioneer groups, shown 
for the Cherokee Ozarks, was general among whites elsewhere, as 
in the Ohio Valley. It can be presumed that the greater difficulty 
of obtaining wood and water, the lack of suitable plows for break- 
ing prairie sod, the greater distance from navigable waters, and, 
probably, conservatism operated to delay prairie settlement by both 
Indians and whites. 

REVISED APPRAISAL 

The first unfavorable appraisal of the Cherokee Ozarks included 
in an annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs seems to 
have been that of 1869.^ At about the same time inter-regional ad- 
vantages and disadvantages were being re-appraised by many resi- 
dents of the Cherokee Nation. The eastern lands were by many no 



4 "Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs," Report Department of Interior, 
1852, p. 403. 

^Rept. Com. Ind. Affairs, 1858, p. 142. 

6 Hon. Vincent Colyer, U. S. Special Indian Commissioner, Ibid., 1869, p. 73. 



Cherokee Occupance in the Oklahoma Ozarks and Prairie Plains 327 



longer considered superior, nor even equal, to those of the west.''' The 
most significant expression of re-appraisal was the movement of 
population into the western region, here called Cherokee Prairies, 
or Prairie Plains. 

For some years after the Civil War, it appears, only small parts 
of the western prairies were desirable for settlement. In 1872, Acting 
Chief William P. Ross spoke of much of the western prairie as "too 
remote from timber and water to make it useful to the Indians for 
agricultural purposes."* The following interesting statement was 
made by a traveler who passed through the prairie region in the 
same year : ' ' This is the most windy part of the West I have yet 
visited, and I suppose it is for that reason, I always find the Indians 
living in the timber along the creeks. Early settlement in the 
Cherokee Prairies was selective as it had been in the Cherokee Ozarks. 
Wood and water continued to be vital considerations as they had 
been in the older region. In these respects Cherokee settlement was 
like contemporary white settlement in Mid-western prairie regions, 
— e.g., Iowa. 

Soon, however, the use of prairie plows, well-drilling machinery,^" 
and of barbed wire fences aided in the expansion of settlement to 
the extensive grassy interfluves, resulting in a more complete occu- 
pation of the land than in the older eastern area. Of these tech- 
nological improvements, barbed wire was probably most important 
because of the emphasis on rapid fencing in of large fields, espe- 
cially of pasture. The use of wire fence of any kind was illegal 
from 1882 to 1892, although some use was made of it.^^ The exist- 
ence of the law indicates some use of wire by 1882. By 1892 barbed 
wire may well have been cheap enough for general use since shortly 
thereafter it was reported that wire enough for a two-strand fence 
of 40 rods sold at $2.25 to $2.75 at any town in the Nation.^^ In addi- 
tion, the western region had rail service a number of years before 
the eastern. 

" John B. Jones, U. S. Agent for the Cherokees, Ibid., 1871, p. 564; J. H. Moore, 
The Political Condition of the Indians and the Resources of the Indian Territory 
(St. Louis: Southwestern Book & Publ. Co., 1874) p. 47. 

S Mrs. Wm. P. Ross, The Life and Times of Hon. William P. Ross of the Chero- 
kee Nation (Fort Smith: Weldon & Williams, printers, 1893), p. 47. 

8 J. H. Beadle, The Undeveloped West, or Five Years in the Territories, Phila- 
delphia and Chicago : National Publishing Company, 1873, p. 355. 

10 Drilling was not in all cases necessary to find water, even on the inter- 
fluves. Even today about one-half the wells in use were dug, rather than drilled. 
In some localities, however, adequate water supplies are to be had only at depths 
too great to encourage digging. 

11 Constitution and Laws of the Cherokee Nation, Published by an act of the 
National Council, 1892 (Parsons, Kansas: The Foley R'y Printing Co., 1893) Ch. 
12, Art. 22, Sec. 705. 

^^Rept. Com. Ind. Affairs, 1886, p. 148. 

13 Charles F. Meserve, the Dawes Commission, and the Five Civilized Tribes 
(Philadelphia: Office of Indian Rights Association, 1896), p. 33 citing the Report 
of the Board of Indian Appraisers. 



328 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



Statistical evidence of the increasing importance of the Prairie 
Plains during the later decades of Cherokee authority is plain, al- 
though not precise (because census data were reported by districts, 
one of the more important of which, Delaware, was rather evenly 
divided between the two regions.) As already estimated, hardly one- 
tenth of the population of the Nation lived in the western (somewhat 
larger) half at the time of the Civil War. By 1880, the fraction 
had risen to one-third,^* and by 1890 to fully one-half^^ Respite large 
increases in the eastern region, whose chief cause was the immigra- 
tion of non-citizen whites. By 1880, it is indicated that roughly 
one-third of the cultivated land, one-half of the cattle, and two-fifths 
of the hogs of the Nation were to be found west of the rivers. The 
United States Geological Survey Township Plats, based on detailed 
observations of the United States surveyors, who were in the region 
in 1896 and 1897, show a far more complete enclosure of the land 
for pasture, hay, and cultivated crop land than in the Ozarkian por- 
tion. This condition continues to the present. 

The Prairie Plains served as an overflow area for the older 
eastern region. The destruction of improvements during the Civil 
War, animosities engendered during the conflict, and the freeing of 
the slaves were among the causes for early migration westward. The 
various citizen population groups took part in the movement although 
the number of full-bloods involved was small. The number of mixed 
bloods moving was large. The census of 1880 showed nearly one- 
half of the Nation's total of about 3,000 Negroes (some of whom 
were not citizens) as west of the Grand. By 1896, over one-half of 
the white citizen population lived in the western region.^^ 

A large number of the settlers of the western prairies came from 
outside the Cherokee Nation. By 1880, new groups were introduced 
in number. These included Delaware and Shawnee Indian groups 
from Kansas, as the result of agreements made in 1867 and 1869, 
respectively, whereby 986 Delawares and 770 Shawnees were made 
citizens of the Cherokee Nation;^'' and over 2,000 non-citizen whites 
(or nearly one-fourth of the regional population), some of whom 
may have come from the older region. By 1890 the non-citizen pop- 
ulation, chiefly white, constituted a large majority in each of the 

^'^ Summary of the Census of the Cherokee Nation, 1880 (Washington, Gibson 
Brothers), p. 14. 

15 "The Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory," Extra Census Bulletin 
(Washington, 1894), p. 4. 

16 Cherokee Census of 1896, 2 vols. 

i'^ Charles C. Royce, "The Cherokee Nation of Indians . . .", Fifth Annual Re- 
port of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1883-4 (Washington, 1887), p. 357. 

According to the Cherokee censuses of 1880 and 1896, practicallly all of both 
groups lived in Cooweescowee (entirely west of the Grand) and Delaware (partly 
west of the Grand) districts. At allotment not one of the original Delaware group 
took an allotment east of the river. Shawnee allotments are indistinguishable on 
the allotment maps. 



Cherokee Occupance in the Oklahoma Ozarks and Prairie Plains 



329 



mainly or entirely western districts, whereas in only one of the 
strictly eastern districts (Sequoyah, in the lower Arkansas Valley) 
was the citizen population outnumbered. 

The sources of the non-citizen whites are somewhat uncertain. 
However, Agent Owen's comparison of Vinita to a Missouri town^* 
may bear on the point. Two pre-allotment biographiesi^ together 
list about the same number of men from Arkansas, Texas, and Mis- 
souri, the leading states of origin, and show about equal numbers 
from the Upper South, Deep South, and Mid-West. 

It is clear that the western prairie region was never as truly 
Cherokee Indian country as the area to the east. Prior to 1890, per- 
haps by 1880, Cherokees by blood were outnumbered by other groups. 
The failure of the Cherokee census to distinguish degree of blood 
prevents an accurate statement of how many of the full-blood (or 
nearly full-blood) group lived in the area, but all sources indicate 
that the number was small. For example, United States surveyors 
in 1896-1897 commented on the composition of the population in 22 
of the congressional townships,^*' which comments summarized show : 
whites, mentioned in 19, formed majority in 10, intermarried whites 
specifically mentioned in one; Negroes, mentioned in 7, majority in 
4; Indians mentioned in 6, majority in 0, full-bloods specifically 
mentioned in 0, fourth-bloods in 2. The above record is, of course, 
incomplete and the distinction between whites and mixed blood Chero- 
kees, it can be presumed, was not always obvious. 

The higher evaluation of the western lands at the time of allot- 
ment is apparent in the values put on the lands of the Cherokee 
Nation for the pui-pose of the equitable division of the land. The clas- 
sification (and incidental evaluation) of land was by forty acre tracts, 
but appraised value totals are available by congressional townships. 
For the land west of the rivers, the average value was $3.70 an acre ; 
for that to the east, it was $2.07 per acre. So consistently was the 
western land given higher appraisals than the eastern that only 2 
complete or almost complete western townships had land values aver- 
aging below the average of the Nation and only 6 complete or nearly 
complete eastern townships had averages above the national figure 
($2.96 per acre). 22 "Good" land in the west was general; in the 



^^Rept. Com. Ind. Affairs, 1886, p. 148. 

19 H. F. and E. S. O'Bieme, The Indian Territory, Its Chiefs, Legislators, and 
Leading Men (St. Louis: C. B. Woodward Co., 1892); D. C. Gideon, Indian Teiri- 
tory, Descriptive, Biographical, and Geneological (New York and Chicago: Lewis 
Publishing Co., 1901). 

20 Field Notes Subdivisions, Vols. 15, 17, 42, 44, 63, 64, 67, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 
75, 76. 

21 Division of Indian Lands and Money, Five Civilized Tribes. 

22 The entire land area of the Cherokee Nation was equivalent to approximately 
192 Congressional townships. Actually the total number of townships was greater 
because a good many were fractional. 



330 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



east it was local and rarely occured in large enough, blocks to raise 
township averages to the level of even the poorest western townships.^s 

The allotment records show that the group now generally called 
"restricted" (one-half blood or more), especially the full-bloods, 
did not generally share the popular and official opinion that the 
Prairie Plains were superior to the Ozark region. In the samewhat 
larger Prairie Plains area, the "restricted" group was alloted ap- 
proximately 564,000 acres, full-bloods about 316,000; in the some- 
what smaller eastern or Ozarkian region the allotments totaled ap- 
proximately 980,000 acres and 720,000 acres, respectively.^* Judging 
from the location of the homesteads designated, an even higher per- 
centage of the restricted group than indicated by allotment acreages 
actually continued to live in the older region. The considerable acre- 
age of land alloted to the restricted group near the western edge, 
especially northwestern corner, of the Prairie Plains was largely for 
purposes of speculation in oil and did not result in a proportional 
movement of the restricted group to the district. 

PIONEEE OCCUPANCE 

In their occupation of the new homeland, the early Cherokees 
tended to select sites which had water, wood, and productive soil, 
which requirements were met, perhaps most satisfactorily, in the 
small valleys of the eastern or wooded region, especially in the lime- 
stone portion. There was an abundance of land in the Ozarkian 
region for the limited agriculture carried on by the small pioneer 
population, despite most of the land being unfit for cultivation. 

The right of Cherokee citizens to use any unoccupied land tended 
to encourage some moving about, and the testing of various sites 
resulted. The ease with which a new farm, the typical southern 
frontier single-farmstead type of settlement with log buildings, could 
be made favored the rapid dispersion of population. Although there 
was a considerable tendency toward clustering of settlement, the 
Cherokees were within a very few years after the arrival of the main 
group scattered over essentially the entire Ozarkian area. 

The early pioneer economy was chiefly subsistence economy. 
Corn, the several purpose crop, adapted to incompletely cleared fields, 
was the staple product. As late as 1880, the Cherokee census indi- 
cates that in the Ozarkian region the average farm contained 10.7 
acres of corn in a total of 16.4 acres in all crops. At this time the 
usual fence was the hard-to-build rail or worm fence. The numerous 
domestic animals of the region depended primarily on the varied, 

23 As is shown graphically in Leslie Hewes, "Indian Land in the Cherokee 
Country", Economic Geography, XVIII (1942), p. 407, the larger blocks of superior 
land in the eastern half are in the Arkansas Valley. 

2* Computed from allotment maps and official rolls and represented graphically 
on the map cited in the preceding footnote. 



Cherokee Occupance in the Oklahoma Ozarks and Prairie Plains 



331 



and at that time, considerable, resources of the open range in the 
woods or on the limited grasslands. A few years later (1885), as 
for several decades before, the only important export of the region 
was cattle. 2^ Substantiallj^, the Ozarkian area was still in the pioneer 
period, with conditions of life little changed since the period of 
Cherokee Settlement except for more use of upland farms, both 
wooded and prairie, by mixed-blood Cherokees and their white la- 
borers and renters. Subsistence economy remained general vintil the 
coming of railroads to the region a little later. 

DECLINE OF SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY 

Although early rail facilities outside the Cherokee Ozarks on 
both the eastern and western edges had some effect on the subsistence 
economy of the region, such economy remained general until the 
period of most active rail building there (1889-1902). West of the 
rivers, the period of pioneer subsistence economy was shorter. The 
settlement took place comparatively late and the railroads, destroyers 
of subsistence economy, came earlier than to the east. The first 
railroad, the M. K. & T., Avas put in operation through the Prairie 
Plains in 1872. It is likely that many of the Cherokee citizens going 
to the newer region and many of the non-citizens were less attached 
to the old ways than the Cherokees who remained in the old habitat 
and lent themselves to new ways more readily. Furthermore, cattle, 
the most saleable pioneer product of the period flourished in the 
region. 

Some effects of the introduction of rail service were general. 
Local enterprises depending on poor transportation, such as local salt 
manufacture, subsistent cotton growing and manufacture, local to- 
bacco growing and manufacture, sheep raising and local manufac- 
ture of wool, declined greatly or ended. Hordes of hunters helped 
to reduce the game which had helped to support numerous full-blood 
communities. Locally, some sections acquired commercial crops, such 
as cotton, and Avood-cutting became important in parts of the Ozark 
region. An active period of town growth ensued. 

In general, a large amount of reorientation and reorganization 
of life around the railroads and their towns took place in the Chero- 
kee Ozarks. In the newer Prairie Plains to which the railroads came 
earlier, there was little activity to reorganize. Rather, the railroad 
was an important factor throughout the period of active settlement 
there. 



25 William P. Ross, testimony, "Report of the Committee on Indian Affairs," 
Sen. Kept. No. 1278, 49th Congress, 1st Sess. (1886), pt. 2, p. 112. 



332 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



MIDDLE PERIOD REGIONAL CONTRASTS 

Instructive pictures of regional contrasts in oceupance forms 
after the Prairie Plains had acquired nearly as large a population 
as the Ozarkian region is presented in the annual reports of the In- 
dian agents. 

The following material, descriptive of the Prairie Plains, is a 
part of one of the most complete statements of regional contrasts 
in the official reports. 

"Entering the Cherokee Nation by the Missouri Pacific Railway, one 
first sees the town of Vinita [Northeastern portion of Prairie Plains]. 
.... Look at a Missouri town of 1,000 inhabitants and you see Vinita. 
. . . The town is composed almost entirely of half-breeds and citizens 
adopted by marriage. ... Passing over the country southeast, over 
undulating prairies with belts of woodland lying along the streams and 
crowning the hills, we pass farm after farm of considerable size, from 
50 to 400 or 500 acres. In the houses live half-breed Cherokees, adopted 
citizens of- the Cherokee Nation, and ocasionally a full-blood. The 
houses vary in character; some are tasteful and double log-houses, 
some box-houses. There are suitable stables, cribs, meat-houses, stock- 
pens, hay-ricks. . . . There are many orchards . . . and occasionally 
a vineyard. The water is obtained mostly from wells, although there 
are some springs. It is drawn generally by means of buckets joined 
by a rope passing over a suspended wheel. The fences are plank, ivire 
[italics mine], or rail. . . ."26 

The following material is descriptive of conditions in the Ozarks : 

"We cross Grand River and get among the full-blood people. They 
are living on the streams in the hilly country; only occasionally do 
they have a frame house, more usually the double log-cabin and log 
outhouses, stables, crib, etc. Their fields are small — from 5 to 150 
acres — in the valleys of the streams and protected by worm fences. 
The full-blood gets his water from a spring. . . He has around him 
a number of cattle branded with his brand, and marked with his mark, 
a number of hogs which run on the range and supply his meat for 
the year. He raises potatoes, beans, and other vegetables, enough corn 
for his own meal and hominy, enough to feed his horses and fatten 
his hogs, which are for the most part fed on the mast of the woods 
adjacent, and to some extent supply his less provident neighbor. . . 
There are other full-bloods who have but a single log-house, with the 
rudest out-buildings, and a very diminutive crib, who live in a very 
humble manner, being content with their daily food, and equally satis- 
fied, when their own cribs have been emptied, to borrow of their neigh- 
bors. . ."27 

That Agent Owen was describing one of the best settled por- 
tions of the Prairie Plains is evident from the location of Vinita 
(easterly, and railroad junction), and his statement of the preced- 
ing year, "There were enormous quantities of hay put up oij the 
prairies, and this, with the extensive grazing and great extension of 
farms, argues that a few seasons will remove the envious growl of 
the boomer that the Indian is not using the land."^^ Although life 

2'6/?ept. Com. Ind. Affairs, 1886, pp. 147-149. 
^Ubid., pp. 148, 149. 
2»Ibid., 1885, p. 108. 



Cherokee Occupance in the Oklahoma Ozarks and Prairie Plains 333 

in the Ozarks generally may have fitted the description given, other 
inhabitants than full-bloods also lived there. Furthermore, it should 
be noted that orchards and vineyards were at the time, as now, more 
numerous east than west of Grand River. 

OCCUPANCE ON THE EVE OF ALLOTMENT 

The character of settlement and life in the Cherokee Nation is 
probably most accurately reported, as in the other nations of the 
Five Ci^dlized Tribes, in the years immediately preceding the allot- 
ment of land. The official reports, such as those of the Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs, contain much detailed information; the 
records of the appraisers indicate the degree of esteem in which the 
land was held ; the detailed records and general township summaries 
of the United States surveyors, and maps made from their notes 
seem faithful, and in the open regions fairly complete, accounts of 
both the natural and cultural landscapes ; the United States Geolog- 
ical Survey topographic maps are somewhat similar but not identical 
records. In addition, in some districts, detailed maps of improve- 
ments were made. In short, a wealth of information was acquired 
to aid in the alloting of land. 

At the time of allotment, more types of land in the Ozarkian 
area were esteemed than in the early years of Cherokee occupancy. 
The small valleys in the uplands remained populous, and in addi- 
tion most of the prairies and the Arkansas Valley lowlands are shown 
by maps and descriptions to have been relatively well settled. Wooded 
uplands were occupied less completely. 

In only a few localities in the Ozarkian region was the land at 
all completely occupied. Only a few townships were as much as 
fifty percent under fence. Cowskin Prairie, at the extreme north- 
ern edge was the largest area of fairly complete enclosure, being 
as much as three-fourths fenced. Other much smaller prairies quite 
completely enclosed included Beattie's, Tahlequah, Park Hill, Al- 
berty or Westville, Lynch, Moseley, and Lowry. Others were less 
than one-half fenced but were generally more completely enclosed 
than the woods surrounding them. Only in the lowlands near the 
Arkansas River were the prairies generally less completely occupied 
than wooded land. The small interior valleys although populous, 
were in the main incompletely occupied, with the small fields usually 
scattered. 

Generally speaking, even in the preferred prairies of the eastern 
region, — e.g., Beattie's, Park Hill, and Cowskin — ^more fenced land 
was in cultivation than in pasture or hay. Stock raising remained 
chiefly an open range industry. Probably fully one-half of the 
fences were of rail, but generally the larger fields, in a few locali- 
ties up to one square mile in size, as on Cowskin, Beattie's and West- 
ville prairies, and a few in the woods, were of wire, apparently chiefly 



334 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



the work of white renters or of white and near-white Cherokee citi- 
zens. Wire was common in the recently settled, intruder-filled Ar- 
kansas Valley. The crops were not highly varied. Corn was gen- 
eral, cotton was important in the south, and locally small grains 
were mentioned by the surveyors and other observers. 

The surveyors reports are replete with the common names of 
the trees of the region, as they might well be in a region dominantly 
wooded. Lumbering was at least locally important, with numerous 
references to current and old saw mills. Walnut and pine, it was 
indicated, still existed in significant quantities. The common oc- 
currence of saw mills suggest the increasing use of sawn lumber 
in local construction. 

Roads and trails, avoiding irregularly shaped farms, connecting 
populated localities in a largely rough country, formed a very ir- 
regular pattern. 

The towns of any importance were railroad towns, with, how- 
ever, numerous hamlets in less accessible locations. Among these 
were the courthouse settlements of the Cherokees. To a consider- 
able degree the line of towns to the east of the Cherokee boundary 
drew trade from the Cherokee Ozarks. 

In the Prairie Plains the cultural landscapes at the time of al- 
lotment were quite different in respect to continuity and amount 
of land enclosed, size of fields, kind of fencing, and uses to which 
enclosed land was put. 

Generally a far larger part of the land west of the rivers was 
reserved for private use through fencing than in the generally wooded 
region to the east. Only a few of the congressional townships in 
the main prairie block of land in the northwestern portion of the 
Nation were less than one-half fenced. In the smaller southwestern 
region (near Muskogee) it is true that the land was much less com- 
pletely enclosed. 

Settlement was most complete in the northeastern portion of 
the Prairie Plains, where a block of about twelve congressional 
townships was quite completely fenced. The surveyors reported in 
some cases that "all" the township was fenced. The maps made 
from their detailed notes show this statement to be quite strictly 
true, with only a few narrow lanes between fences remaining open. 
Nearness to the older portion of the Cherokee Country, and, prob- 
ably more important, nearness to Missouri and Kansas settler-sources 
and markets, service by the oldest railroads in the Nation (which 
formed a junction at Vinita), were locational advantages. Also, 
the district had other advantages over some other parts of the Prairie 
Plains, including somewhat more rainfall, more nearly level surface, 
somewhat thicker soil, and doubtless of early significance, water 
at very moderate depths.^^ 

29 Even today more than one-half of the wells on the Cherokee Shale north 
of Vinita are dug wells, as indicated by records in the Oklahoma Geological Survey. 



Cherokee Occupance in the Oklahoma Ozarks and Prairie Plains 



335 



Settlement was less complete elsewhere. Generally, the south- 
ern and Avestern tiers of toMTiships in the main prairie block lagged 
behind those of the northern and eastern edges. Some townships 
were not over one-third in fence, and in many in the western half, 
it is indicated that cultivation had not outgrown the limited bottom 
lands. 

Many cultivated fields and pastures^ were large. In numerous 
townships single enclosures contained as much as a square mile of 
land. However, fields of one-fourth or one-half section were much 
more common. In most areas all fences were of wire. In a few 
localities, especially northern ones, fences were laid out according 
to the cardinal directions. In the southerly townships along the 
eastern margin, some rail fences were shown, suggesting earliness 
of settlement and the presence of wood. A number of western border 
townships also contained rail fences. 

In most of the region pasture land was more extensive than 
cultivation although there were important exceptions. Corn and 
wheat were the crops most mentioned, with hay (native), and oats 
receiving some emphasis. 

The following summary statement of the Board of Appraisers, 
1895, of land use is, accordingly, substantiated except that mixed- 
blood and white and Indian adopted citizens should have been in- 
cluded with the intruders. 

"In the grass sections west of the Grand River, the intruders 
usually cultivate themselves, or by renters, from 50 to 200 acres of 
land and save the remainder of the land enclosed for hay and pasture. 
Native hay in winter is in great demand for shipping to Kansas City 
stockyards and the mining towns of southwest Missouri and locally 
for feeding cattle shipped into the territory."30 

An account written during the allotment period indicates the con- 
tinuation of prairie hay shipments. It was stated that hay was 
brought baled as much as six miles to two north-south railroads for 
sending to points in Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana.^i 

ALLOTMENT AND THE OCCUPANCE PATTERNS 
The allotment of land in severalty in the years 1903 to 1907 in- 
volved a number of major changes in occupance in the Cherokee 
Nation. Land was no longer available to all citizens (and many 
intruders) in amounts governed by individual ambition and prior 
occupancy. Rather, land was alloted in equitable fashion. The citi- 
zen was entitled to 110 acres of land of average appraised value 
(proportionally more poor land, or proportionally less superior land). 
The citizen had priority on land that he was occupying, subject to 

30 Meserve, op. cit., p. 33. 

31 G. E. Condra, "Opening of the Indian Territory," Bull. Amer. Geogr. Sac. 
XXXIX (1907), p. 333. 



336 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



appraised value restrictions just mentioned and to the mathematical 
rigidity of the checker-board pattern of the United States Land 
Survey, which was imposed on the region for the first time. Com- 
monly the allotment chosen included the home of the allottee, al- 
though many Cherokees took advantage of the last opportunity to 
obtain new free land. Many, of course, after selecting their old 
farmsteads, found it necessary to complete their allotments else- 
where. This was especially true in many long settled densely popu- 
lated full-blood districts in the Ozarks, in which appraised land 
values were commonly low. Hence, many citizens found themselves 
legal owners of unfamiliar plots of land in the poorer parts of the 
Ozarks and the distant Prairie Plains, many of which were u.seless 
or of little value to the new owners. The raonopoly of land by the 
ambitious was curtailed, without, however, improving the lot signifi- 
cantly of many of the poor and formerly nearly landless full-bloods.^^ 

A much more orderly and regular spacing of roads, farm- 
steads, fields, and pastures was effected than that which resulted 
from the earlier unplanned squatters' rights settlement. However, 
quarter-section squares were not the rule as in Oklahoma Territory. 
Rather, there was no necessity that plots larger than ten acres be 
square, and unit areas varied from 10 acres to possibly an entire 
section. In much of the rough Ozark region, the regularity of the 
allotment map has but little expression in the actual cultural land- 
scape. 

CURRENT OCCUPANCE 

Present cultural landscapes in both the Cherokee Ozarks and 
Prairie Plains can be derived in large part from conditions exist- 
ing at the time of allotment. General distribution of population, 
farm units, types of land use, habitation types, and transportation 
patterns are features largely governed by conditions of four or five 
decades ago. True, the non-citizen white has become the chief owner 
of land and new land units have been fashioned and other changes 
have occurred. The two regions continue to display different char- 
acteristics. 

The Ozarkian region remains a predominantly wooded area, with 
the chief rural and town developments largely localized where they 
were in 1900. The pioneer quality of the area is still visibly strik- 
ing in the smallness of fields, the unfenced condition of most of the 
region, the prominence of corn, the commonness of frame houses 
with vertical siding, the considerable number of log houses, and the 
survival of pre-railroad hamlets and country stores. In all the 
above respects an earlier period is recalled. Its modern survival 
is under favoring conditions of natural environment, and is in keep- 
ing with the character of the population, which consists largely of 

32 Hewes, "Indian Land in the Cherokee Country", op. cit., pp. 401-412. 



Cherokee Occupance in the Oklahoma Ozarks and Prairie Plains 



337 



whites from the Upper South (largely wooded hill country^^). In 
addition, the region contains a larger restricted Indian population 
than any other area of comparable size in the State. In other less 
tangible respects the region retains marked pioneer characteristics. 
In no other part of the State is so large a region so largely one of 
self-sufficing farms. Such farms rank close behind general farms 
in numbers in most of the region. In no other part of the State 
of comparable size do general stores outnumber all other types com- 
bined so greatly. 

The Prairie Plains region continues to show many of the quali- 
ties acquired prior to allotment. Especially worthy of note is the 
prominence given to grassland in general farms, animal specialty 
farms, and dairy farms. The region is outstanding in the State in 
the percentage of farms classed in the last two groups. In no other 
portion of the State is as large an acreage of prairie grass cut for 
hay. Settlement is now much more evenly distributed than at the 
time of allotment, although Craig County, in the northeastern sec- 
tion, is stiU more completely in farms and in crops than the other 
counties of the main block of prairie land in the Cherokee Nation. 

Both the Cherokee Ozarks and Prairie Plains are marked by 
former Cherokee occupance forms and, accordingly, differ in their 
human geography from physically similar country adjacent lying 
outside the former Indian Territory. However, the role of the 
boundaries of the Cherokee Nation as cultural boundaries, signifi- 
cant as such a theme may be, will not be examined here. A study 
of cultural differences between former Cherokee country and non- 
Indian country is a logical extension of the present study of Chero- 
kee occupance. The Cherokee Ozarks, it has been indicated in an 
earlier study,^* differ significantly from the adjoining portion of 
the Arkansas and Missouri Ozarks. The Cherokee portion of the 
Prairie Plains differs perhaps as strongly from the portion of the 
Prairie Plains in southeastern Kansas. 



^3 The chapter entitled "The Southern Highlands: Frontier Heritage," in Rupert 
B. Vance, Human Geography of the South (Chapel Hill: University of North Caro- 
lina Press, 1932), pp. 240-260, is a good general statement of the survival of pioneer 
conditions in the Southern Hill Country. 

YTv^^fn^''''^^' "^"^'"'"^1 Fault Line in the Cherokee Country," Economic Geography, 
XIX (1943), pp. 136-142. 



338 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



THE BEGINNINGS OF THE OKLAHOMA STATE 
HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION^ 

Fred S. Clinton, M.D., F.A.C.S. 

The twenty-fifth anniversary of the organization of the Okla- 
homa State Hospital Association, the fifth state hospital association 
to be organized in the United States, was on May 21, 1944. Since 
this valuable institution is of historical significance and regional ira- 
portance, the writer has presented from his files the outlines and 
definitive data, from 1919 to 1927 inclusive, for The Chronicles of 
Oklahoma, having served many years as chairman of the Committee 
on Hospitals for the Oklahoma State Medical Association, and having 
made numerous written reports, which were received, read, filed and 
forgotten. 2 A native of the Indian Territory, Oklahoma State, he 

1 The first hospital in the Indian Territory, now Oklahoma, was at Fort Gib- 
son established by Colonel Matthew Arbuckle in command of five companies of 
the 7tli Infantry on April 21, 1824. Dr. John Walker Baylor was physician and 
surgeon at the new military post, his name being listed on the medical staff of the 
War Department, attached to the 7th Infantry, July 8, 1824. — American State Papers, 
Military Affairs, Vol. Ill, p. 201; Grant Foreman, Fort Gibson (Norman: University 
of Oklahoma Press, 1936), p. 8; William Brown Morrison, Military Posts and Camps 
in Oklahoma (Oklahoma City: Harlow Publishing Company, 1936), pp. 28-47; 
Jan^es Henry Gardner, "The Lost Captain," The Chronicles of Oklahoma, XXI 
(September, 1943), p. 219; Joseph B. Thoburn and Muriel H. Wright, Oklahoma: 
A History of the State and Its People (New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Com- 
pany, Inc., 1929), Vol. I, pp. 61-74. 

2 These and others attending the 1920 meeting are classed as charter members 
of the Oklahoma State Hospital Association (ten of the appended list having promised 
but not actually attending the first meeting at Muskogee, being unavoidably de- 
tained through no fault of their own) : Oklahoma Baptist Hospital, J. A. Stalcup, 
Supt., Miami, Okla. Physicians and Surgeons Hospital, Dr. Sessler Hoss, Muscogee, 
Oklahoma. Oklahoma Baptist Hospital, Miss M. Ellen Cheek, Muscogee, Okla. 
Mable Dale Hospital, H. C. Dale, Supt., Yale, Okla. Oklahoma Cottage Sanitorium, 
Dr. J. L. Moorman, Medical Director, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Okmulgee City 
Hospital, Dr. V. Berry, Okmulgee, Oklahoma. Eastern Oklahoma Hospital, Dr. 
F. M. Adams, Supt., Vinita, Okla. Central Oklahoma Hospital, Dr. D. W. 
Griffin, Supt., Norman, Okla. Washington County Hospital, Charles E. Allen, 
Supt., Bartlesville, Okla. All Saints Hospital, owned and operated by the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, McAIester, Oklahoma. Huffman Hospital, Hobart, 
Okla., Jennie Eads, Supt. Holdenville Hospital, Holdenville, Dr. J. W. Lowe. 
Florence Hospital, Cordell, Okla., Dr. A. J. Bungardt. Clinton Hospital, Clinton, 
Okla., Dr. McLain Rogers. Shawnee City Hospital, Shawnee, Okla., Mrs. F. M. 
Beaty, Supt. St. Anthony's Hospital, Oklahoma City, Dr. R. M. Howard. Chick- 
asha Hospital, Chickasha, Okla., Dr. D. S. Downey. Wesley Hospital, Oklahoma City, 
Dr. M. E. Stout. El Reno Sanitarium, El Reno, Okla., Drs. Hatchett— Aderhold. 
Enid General Hospital, Enid, Okla., Dr. James Hays. The Hardy Sanitarium, 
Ardmore, Okla., Dr. A. G. Cowles. The Baptist Hospital, Oklahoma City, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Smith. Oklahoma Hospital, Tulsa, Okla., Dr. Fred S. Clinton. Tulsa 
Hospital, Tulsa, Okla., Dr. C. L. Reeder. Morningside Hospital, Tulsa, Okla., Mrs. 
D. I. Browne. Duke Sanitarium, Guthrie, Okla., Dr. J. W. Duke. University Hos- 
pital, Oklahoma City, Dr. LeRoy Long. Blackwell Hospital, Blackwell, Okla., Dr. 
Arthur S. Risser. 



Cherokee Occupance in the Oklahoma Ozarks and Prairie Plains 



339 



Tvas anxious to guard its greatest resource, the health of its people, 
and planned to organize and establish a working Oklahoma State 
Hospital Association. The first state hospital association was or- 
ganized in Ohio in 1915 ; then followed three other states, and the 
Oklahoma State Hospital Association was the fifth to be organized, 
Avhich occurred May 21, 1919. 

The local problems being different yet ranging about patients, 
there was need to challenge the attention of physicians and to at- 
tract the people. A sympathetic and understanding association was 
sought by meeting at the same time and place with the State Medical 
Association and by bringing outstanding guest speakers who would 
interest those attending both meetings. A noon luncheon was given 
by the writer for representatives from most of the leading hospitals 
of Oklahoma and the following program was presented 

"The Object of the Meeting," Dr. Fred S. Clinton, Oklahoma Hospital, 
Tulsa, Oklahoma; "What is Hospital Standardization," Dr. P. K. Camp, 
Wesley Hospital, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Minimum Requirements of 
Case Records," Dr. LeRoy Long, University Hospital, Oklahoma City, Okla- 
homa; "The Hospital as a Health Center." Dr. J. A. Hatchett, El Reno 
Sanitarium El Reno, Oklahoma; "The Doctor's Part", Dr. V. Berry; Ok- 
mulgee Hospital, Okmulgee, Oklahoma; "The Hospital's Part," Dr. A. S. 
Risser, Blackwell Hospital, Blackwell, Oklahoma; "The Minimum Labora- 
tory Requirements of a General Hospital, and its equipment and Manage- 
ment," Dr. M. Smith, St. Anthony's Hospital, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; 
"Let's Go," Dr. Sessler Hoss, Physicians and Surgeons Hospital, Muscogee, 
Oklahoma. 

The object of the meeting was stated as follows: 
THE OBJECT OF THE MEETING OF THE REPRESENTATIVES 
OF VARIOUS HOSPITALS IN THE STATE OP OKLAHOMA 
AT MUSKOGEE, May 21, 1919. 
By Dr. Fred S. Clinton, President Oklahoma 
Hospital, Tulsa, Oklahoma 

The real spirit of the constructive work of the age finds itself expressed 
through organization and team work. 

The great objects of a hospital are care, cure and education of the 
sick; the training of physicians and nurses; the extension of medical knowl- 
edge and prevention of disease. 

The purpose of the proposed organization of the hospitals of the State 
of Oklahoma is to promote the welfare of the people so far as it may be 
done by the institution, care and management of hospitals and dispensaries 
with efficiency and economy, to aid in procuring the cooperation of all or- 



3 Officers elected, Oklahoma State Hospital Association, Muskogee, Oklahoma, 
May 21st, 1919: President, Dr. Fred S. Clinton, Oklahoma Hospital, Tulsa, Okla- 
homa; First Vice President, Dr. J. A. Hatchett, El Reno Sanitarium. El Reno, 
Oklahoma; Second Vice President, Dr. A. J. Risser, Blackwell Sanitarium, Black- 
well, Oklahoma; Executive Secretary, Mr. Paul H. Fesler, Supt., State University 
Hospital, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Treasurer, Dr. Sessler Hoss, Chief Surgeon, 
Midland Valley R. R. Co., and P. & S. Hospital, Muskogee, Oklahoma; Delegate 
American Hospital Association, Mr. Paul H. Fesler, Supt.; Alternate, American Hos- 
pital Association, Dr. F. K. Camp, Wesley Hospital, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. 

Next meeting. May 1920, Oklahoma City, Okla. 



340 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



ganizations with aims and objects similar to those of this Association; and 
in general, to do all things which may best promote hospital efficiency. 

The speaker for a long time has insisted that the great responsibility 
of properly conducting a hospital necessitated mental and moral as well 
as material equipment, and the great effort to standardize hospital service 
is going to require that men use a properly educated conscience as their 
guide rather than proclaim some newly found or accepted formula. 

John G. Bowman, Director of the American College of Surgeons re- 
cently said to the speaker that "hospital standardization is merely the or- 
ganized effort by which the profession and hospitals may effectively carry 
out their own purpose." 

The growing importance of the efficient industry known as hospitals, 
and the large amount of time and thought as well as money invested in 
them in the State of Oklahoma, demands their concerted effort with the 
view of securing the maximum efficiency. 

This is your opportunity to aid in shaping the fundamentals of this 
important industry which we have nursed through its early struggles and 
hardships. Through counsel and cooperation we may easily be the master 
of the situation and demand the respectful attention of all those with whom 
we have dealings. 

With the application of progressive ideas and lofty ideals we may press 
hopefully forward toward that high destiny which awaits those who have 
the courage of their convictions and an abiding confidence in the future 
of mankind. 

A thoughtfully prepared and properly conducted round table 
is usually the most instructive and interesting" part of a meeting. 
Here, one with the smallest or largest problem may have the benefit 
of the best informed expert advice and always feel assured that he 
would be well repaid for attending every meeting. In this cross 
section of a friendly foriim one gets better acquainted and every 
member had a chance to participate. The round table was made a 
permanent feature of the regular conventions to give every one in- 
terested the opportunity of having a part in the meeting. This in- 
formal, comfortable research and diligent inquiry into the facts and 
principles concerned in the correct conduct of a hospital repaid all 
efforts put forth in the investigations. The carefully planned demo- 
cratic method to realize to the full the experience and trained in- 
telligence of leading doctors, hospital executives, teachers and other 
qualified officials to organize and direct the round table is now 
used quite generally all over the United States to quickly dissemi- 
nate knowledge. 

The second annual meeting of Oklahoma State Hospital Asso- 
ciation convened at Oldahoma City, Oklahoma, May 19, 1920. Many 
doctors owned or were associated with hospitals as executives or mem- 
bers of the staffs or visited them on occasion.* Much of their time 

The president had as his guests for special noon luncheon at the Lee Huckins 
Hotel, Oklahoma City, May 19, 1920, over thirty representatives of various hospitals 
in Oklahoma, the names of the hospitals and of the representatives appearing in 
his personal files and records: Huffman Hospital, Hobart, Oklahoma ,Jennie Eads, 
Supt. ; Holdenville Hospital, Holdenville, Okla., Dr. J. W. Lowe; Florence Hospital, 
Cordell, Okla., Dr. A. H. Bungardt; Clinton Hospital, Clinton, Okla., Dr. McLain 



The Beginnings of the Oklahoma State Hospital Association 



341 



could be saved by the medical and hospital associations in meeting 
at the same dates, each needing the other during the evolutionary- 
growth of this expanding industry in Oklahoma. The development 
was orderly and far more harmonious for members of both organi- 
zations became better acquainted and cultivated a sympathetic under- 
standing for a great work of mutual interest. ^ 

The Third Annual Meeting of the Oklahoma State Hospital As- 
sociation was held May 18, 1921, at McAlester, Oklahoma.^* Answer- 
ing a letter of inquiry, July 20, 1921, from the secretary of the Asso- 
ciation, the writer responded July 25, 1921, as follows: "It was 
decided to continue last year's officers." * * * The meeting at Mc- 
Alester was a very instructive and successful one." "The addresses 



Rogers; Shawnee City Hospital, Shawnee, Okla., Mrs. F. M. Beaty, Supt.; Chick- 
asha Hospital, Chickasha, Okla., Dr. D. S. Downey; Enid General Hospital, Enid, 
Okla., Dr. James Hays; Oklahoma State Baptist Hospital, Oklahoma City, Mrs. 
Elizabeth T. Smith, R.N., Supt.; Oklahoma Hospital, Tulsa, Okla., Dr. Fred S. 
Clinton, Pres.; Wesley Hospital, Oklahoma City, Okla., Dr. M. E. Stout; St. An- 
thony's Hospital, Oklahoma City, Okla., Dr. R. M. Howard; Physicians and Sur- 
geons Hospital, Muscogee, Okla., Dr. Sessler Hoss; Tulsa Hospital, Tulsa, Okla., 
Dr. C. L. Reeder, Sec; Morningside Hospital, Tulsa, Oklahoma, Mrs. D. I. Browne, 
Supt.; Municipal Hospital, Tulsa, Oklahoma; University Hospital, Oklahoma City, 
Oklahoma, Dr. LeRoy Long; Oklahoma Baptist Hospital, Muscogee, Oklahoma, 
Dr. J. H. Wliite; Duke Sanitarium, Guthrie, Oklahoma, Dr. J. W. Duke; Mable 
Dale Hospital, Yale, Oklahoma, H. C. Dale, Supt.; Okmulgee City Hospital, Ok- 
mulgee, Oklahoma, Chas. M. Ming, Board Member; Blackwell Hospital, Blackwell, 
Okla., Dr. A. S. Risser; El Reno Sanitarium, El Reno, Oklahoma, Dr. J. A. Hatchett; 
Hardy Sanitarium, Ardmore, Okla., Dr. A. G. Cowles; Oklahoma Baptist Hospital, 
Miami, Okla., J. A. Stalcup, Supt.; Home Hospital, Sand Springs, Okla., Geo. C. 
Campbell, Supt.; Enid Springs Sanitorium and Hospital, Dr. Geo. A. Boyle. 

5 The second year the following brief program was presented by the Oklahoma 
State Hospital Association: "How may we make the hospitals more effective in 
Oklahoma," Dr. John W. Duke, Guthrie; "The Staff," Dr. John W. Riley, Okla- 
homa City; "Hospitals vs. Storehouses," Dr. C. W. Heitzman, Muscogee; "The 
Nurse," Miss Candice Monfort, Supt. of Nurses, University Hospital; "The Hos- 
pital as Center for Social Service," Dr. A. S. Risser, Blackwell ; Report on new 
State Tubercular Sanitoriums, Dr. D. Long, Oklahoma City; "Occupational Therapy," 
Dr. F. M. Adams, Supt. Eastern Oklahoma Hospital No. 2, Vinita, Okla. 

Officers elected May 19, 1920, for 1920-1921: Dr. Fred S. Clinton, President 
of Oklahoma Hospital, Tulsa, re-elected President; Dr. J. A. Hatchett, El Reno 
Sanitarium, El Reno, 1st vice president; Dr. A. S. Risser, Blackwell Hospital, 
Blackwell, Oklahoma, 2nd Vice President; Paul H. Fesler, Supt. University Hos- 
pital, Oklahoma City, Execulive Secretary; Dr. J. Hutchins White, Baptist Hospital, 
Muscogee, Oklahoma. Treasurer; Delegate to American Hospital Association, Dr. 
C. L. Reeder, Tulsa Hospital, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Dr. Geo. A. Boyle, Enid Springs 
Sanitorium and Hospital, Enid, Oklahoma, Alternate; In January 1921, Dr. Fred 
S. Clinton accepted the chairmanship of the first National Hospital Day, May 12, 
1921, for the State of Oklahoma. (Report Committee on Hospitals, Journal Okla- 
homa State Medical Association [July, 1925], XVHI: 163.) 

In 1894, following a mine disaster near McAlester, the Protestant Episcopal 
Church sponsored, built, furnished, and occupied a building named "All Saints 
Hospital and Training School for Nurses." It served long, honorably and usefully. 
It was finally acquired by the Masons and the name was changed to Albert Pike 
Hospital, about 1926. 



342 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



by Drs. Eosser, Jackson and Long were received very enthusiasti- 
cally," and were a great contribution to the Stated 

Oklahoma State Hospital Association convened at Oklahoma 
City, May 10, 1922. A noon luncheon was held at Lee Huekins 
Hotel, with over fifty members present. The Association met at 
7:30 P.M., in the auditorium of St. Luke's Church, Oklahoma City.^ 

Joint Meeting, Oklahoma State Medical Association and The 
Oklahoma State Hospital Association, convened at 7 :30 P.M., Tues- 
day, May 15, 1923, at the First Baptist Church, 4th and Cincinnati, 
Tiilsa, Oklahoma. This open meeting was addressed by two dis- 
tinguished Texas guests of Dr. and Mrs. Fred S. Clinton: "Organ- 
ized Medicine," Dr. C. M. Eosser, Dallas, Texas, Professor of Sur- 
gery, Baylor University Medical School; "The Economic and Social 
Value of the Hospital," Mr. Eobert Jolly, Superintendent Baptist 
Hospital, Houston, Texas. On Wednesday, May 16, 1923, Dr. Jabez 
N. Jackson, of Kansas City, Mo., and Dr. George "W. Cale, Jr., of 
St. Louis, Mo. gave surgical clinics and lectures at the Oklahoma 
Hospital, open to members of both Associations. The following para- 
graph is lifted from the writer's notes in his files dated May 17, 
1924, referring to the meeting of the Oklahoma State Hospital Asso- 
ciation May 14, 1924 ;9 

WOEKMEN'S COMPENSATION 

Many valuable services and contributions to the people of Okla- 
homa have been made through the mobilization of the fighting forces 
of the citizens to modify or correct injustices to them; concession 

As the guests of the President and the Oklahoma State Hospital Association 
these distinguished surgeons and educators participated in the following program 
at an open meeting of the Association, May 18, 1921, at the Auditorium of the First 
Baptist Church, McAlester: 

Invocation, Rev. W. A. Treadwell; Music (Selected) Temple 'Quartette; The 
President's Address, Dr. Fred S. Clinton, Tulsa; Music (Selected) Mrs. G. H. 
Newton; Address "More Hospitals, Bigger and Better Hospitals A Health Necessity," 
Dr. C. M. Rosser, Professor Surgery Baylor University, College of Medicine, Dallas, 
Texas; Address, Subject Selected, Dr. Jabez N. Jackson, Kansas City, Missouri; 
Address, "Some Remarks on the Function of the Hospital," Dr. LeRoy Long, Dean 
and Professor of Surgery, University of Oklahoma, School of Medicine. 

8 Program (1922): Invocation, Rev. Phil C. Baird, Pastor First Presbyterian 
Church, Oklahoma City; Music by Mrs. Alfred A. Brown, St. Luke's Church; 
President's Address, Dr. Fred S. Clinton, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Music, Mr. H. Earl 
North, St. Luke's Church; illustrated lecture, "Prevention of Deformities vs. The 
Cure of Deformities," Dr. Paul Budd Magnusan, Associate Professor of Surgery, 
Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois. 

9 See Appendix A for program of the Oklahoma State Hospital Association, 
Tulsa, Oklahoma, December 9, 1924. 

"The most important thing, I believe, in the meeting was the realization 
of the necessity for a closer communion and wider diffusion of knowledge 
with reference to hospital affairs in this State. This seems so important 
that I appointed a committee to arrange for additional meeting this fall, 
time and place to be announced later, at which a more detailed discussion 
of the numerous problems can be had." 




THE OKLAHOMA STATE HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION VISITS THE 
OKLAHOMA HOSPITAL IN TULSA, DECEMBER 9, 1924 



The Beginnings of the Oklahoma State Hospital Association 343 

and cooperation aided in bringing about the results reported here 
which touches the hearts of the homes and the purses of the people. 

One of the outstanding fields in which the Association has been 
able to render service, not only to the hospitals of the State, but 
to the medical fraternity as well, and especially to the increasing 
proportion of the citizenship engaged in industrial employment, is 
that of Workmen's Compensation. The liberalization of the Okla- 
homa laAv upon this subject is largely the result of the initiative 
and energy of the organization in proposing to succeeding Governors 
and Legislatures improvements which experience had indicated 
should be made in the text and in the administration of this benefi- 
cent law, credit for the original enactment of which belongs to the 
administration of Governor Robert L. Williams. 

The State Supreme Court on July 18, 1922, interpreting Section 
4 of the original Workmen's Compensation Act of 1915, in the case 
of Associated Employers Reciprocal and World Publishing Company 
versus State Industrial Commission and Dr. Fred S. Clinton, and 
Oklahoma Hospital, (87 Oklahoma Reports, page 16, et seq.) held 
that the State Industrial Commission established by the Act to ad- 
minister the Workmen's Compensation law was without jurisdiction, 
except under limited circumstances, to make awards to hospitals 
and physicians and surgeons rendering services to injured employees, 
and that the authority of the Commission was confined ordinarily 
to awarding compensation to the injured person only for the injury. 
Under this decision, although the employer had furnished the medical 
and hospital services, and expressly had agreed to pay for them, 
the Commission was rendered powerless to require payment either 
at the instance of the injured- employee or that of the hospital or 
the surgeon concerned. A separate suit in a court of law was the 
only recoiirse for recovery of the hospital and medical elements of 
compensation. 

The administration of Governor J. C. Walton was to take the 
reins of state government, and the Legislature was to convene the 
first of the year after the decision was rendered by the Siipreme 
Court. The President of the Association, with the assistance of legal 
counsel, presented to the Governor-elect a statement of the need for 
amendment of the basic law on the subject, with concrete recommen- 
dations for changes which would broaden the jurisdiction of the 
Commission to the extent that it would be empowered to adjudicate 
the rights of the injured employee, not only to compensation, but 
also to proper allowances for the attention and service incident to 
his injury, and to order payment to those who had rendered them. 
The new administration was heartily responsive to the request, the 
necessary legislation was drafted and enacted and was signed by the 
Governor, and the Amendment of 1923 to the Oklahoma Workmen's 
Compensation Act, (Session Laws of 1923, Chapter 61, page 118, 



344 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



Regular Session) Tinder which, the Commission is given full power 
to do justice to all concerned in cases before it, is the gratifying 
result of the Association's activities and influence which have been 
described. 

While the law itself thus had been put on a sound and work- 
able basis in the respects mentioned, the administration of relief 
under the Act was unsatisfactory. This became a subject of dis- 
cussion at the Annual Convention of the Association, December 19, 
1924, in Tulsa. The remedy now lay not in additional legislation, 
for none was needed, but in a more expeditious administration of 
relief provided by the Act, and one that would be more sympathetic 
with its purposes. 

A Resolution representing the views of the Association as to 
these needs was offered by a Committee of which Dr. Frank H. Mc- 
Gregor, of Mangum, was Chairman, was adopted by the Association, 
and was forwarded to Governor M. E. Trapp, the Governor being 
vested under the Constitution and the Workmen's Compensation Act 
itself, with supervisory and corrective powers, including those of 
appointment and removal, over the Commission's execution of the 
amended Act. Again the official response was favorable. Under 
the administrations of Governor Trapp and succeeding chief magis- 
trates great progress has been made in the accomplishment of dis- 
patch, certainty and efficiency in the functioning of the Commission, 
and public satisfaction with its work has increased accordingly. 

TULSA 1925 MEETING 

The following brief account gives a fair but too short statement 
of this wonderful meeting during which instructive and interesting 
addresses held the attention of all present. 

The semi-annual social and educational meeting of the Olda- 
homa State Hospital Association was called to order at the Mayo 
Hotel, Tulsa, Oklahoma, May 13, 1925, after a banquet at which 
Dr. and Mrs. Fred S. Clinton and officers of the Oklahoma Hos- 
pital were hosts to over seventy-five representatives of hospitals of 
Oklahoma and elsewhere. 

Dr. Jabez N. Jackson of Kansas City, Missouri, delivered the 
principal address of the evening. Doctor Jackson detailed the de- 
mise of the privately owned medical college on account of changing 
conditions and demand for enlarged facilities and opportunities for 
the education of medical students, and indicated that the same evo- 
lutionary effect was taking place today in America, with hospitals. 
He indicated that the splendid achievements of pioneers in organ- 
izing, erecting and supplying hospital service in new communities 
should be appreciated to the extent that others who had been en- 
gaged in the accumulation of wealth would pick up and aid in dis- 
tributing this load over the entire community through endowments, 
etc. 



The Beginnings of the Oklahoma State Hospital Association 



345 



Dr. M. T. MacEachern, Assistant Director of the American 

College of Surgeons was then introduced and outlined the program 
and progress of the small hospital and the obligations the community 
had to that institution. 

The Association also received a report from Mr. Phil W. Davis, 
Jr., Attorney, concerning the present status of the legislation for 
clarification of the Workmen's Compensation Act. The meeting ad- 
journed, leaving the selection of the next place and time of the an- 
nual convention to be fixed by the program and executive committee. 

The American College of Surgeons War Sessions Program for 
Hospital Conferences was convened at the Mayo Hotel in Tulsa, 
Tuesday. April 4, 1944. This tri-State Convention included Okla- 
homa, Kansas and Arkansas. Malcolm T. MacEachern, M.D., Chi- 
cago, Associate Director, American College of Surgeons, was in 
charge, with representatives in attendance from each of the three 
states. E. U. Benson, Gushing, President, Oklahoma State Hospital 
Association, Superintendent, Masonic Hospital Association, presided. 
J. 0. Bush, Jr., Oklahoma City, was President Elect, Oklahoma 
State Hospital Association. A full day and night session was filled 
with remarkable, varied and useful subjects including two round 
tables. 

The paucity of reliable written accessible information on early 
history of hospitals in Indian Territory and Oklahoma is appalling 
to one who would undertake to present a creditable review of this 
great industry which has such an important part in the community 
life in all sections of the State. If persons knowing the facts and 
will write and properly document them, the writer would suggest 
that they send them to the Oklahoma State Historical Society, Okla- 
homa City, Oklahoma. 

The following references are incomplete, and they may cite both 
correct and incorrect information, proving the importance of his- 
torical research for the truth. 

The Miami meeting November 7 and 8, 1927, was one of the 
best sessions with more National officers and hospital authorities 
than you could expect anywhere in the world that distance from 
the great centers and hospitals. Its record will remain that of a 
most important meeting for years to come. 

Mr. G. M. Landon, Business Manager of the Miami Baptist Hos- 
pital, was frank and free in his call for help to have a great meet- 
ing and all responded. The writer put every effort into getting 
all his hospital friends and the authorities to attend. A glance at 
the program tells the story. 

See Appendix B for program of the Oklahoma State Hospital Association, 
Miami, Oklahoma, November 7 and 8, 1927. 



346 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



THE FIRST JOINT MEETING STATE HOSPITAL ASSOCIA- 
TION OF KANSAS, MISSOURI AND OKLAHOMA 

In 1926 a telegram was received from B. A. Wilkes, M. D., 
President of the Missouri State Hospital Association extending an 
invitation and urging tlie writer to address the approaching meeting 
of the Association in St. Louis, Missouri.^! Upon arrival, it was 
learned that they wanted something to stimulate interest and pro- 
mote growth of the organization. Being a Methodist, the writer 
simply told the story of the plan and experience in starting out to 
develop the Oklahoma State Hospital Association. This talk resulted 
in a decision to ask the Kansas State Hospital Association to join 
in the formation of the Midwest Hospital Association, the first re- 
gional association in the midwest.^^ This progress activated the 
three Associations and encouraged organizations in all adjoining 
states. 



11 The Association during the years had presented such distinguished persons 
as Dr. C. M. Rosser, Professor Clinical Surgery, Baylor University, of Dallas, Texas; 
Dr. Jabez N. Jackson, President A. M. Association, of Kansas City, Missouri; Dr. 
Paul B. Magnuson, Associate Professor Surgery, Northwestern University, Chicago, 
Illinois; Mr. Robert Jolly, Houston, Texas; Dr. LeRoy Long, Dean of the University 
Medical Department, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Dr. W. B. Bizzell, President of the 
University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma; Dr. Malcolm T. MacEachern, Asso- 
ciate Director American College of Surgeons, Chicago, Illinois; Matthew 0. Foley, 
Managing Editor, Hospital Management, Chicago, Illinois; John A. McNamara, 
Editor Modern Hospital, Chicago, Illinois; Dr. B. A. Wilkes, President Mid-West 
Hospital Association, St. Louis, Missouri; Dr. William H. Walsh, Executive Secre' 
tary of the American Hospital Association, Chicago, Illinois; Dr. Oscar E. Nadeau, 
Associate Professor of Surgery, Illinois Post Graduate Medical School, Chicago, 
Illinois; Phil W. Davis, Jr., Attorney, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Dr. L. J. Moorman, stu- 
dent, author, authority on Tuberculosis and Professor of Internal Medicine, Medical 
Department, Oklahoma University; Governor Henry S. Johnston, 1926 Address at 
Enid meeting. 

12 Upon motion of Hugh Scott, M.D., Medical Officer in Charge, U. S. Veterans 
Hospital, Muscogee, Fred S. Clinton, M. D., President Oklahoma Hospital, Tulsa, 
was unanimously elected Honorary Life President Oklahoma State Hospital Asso- 
ciation, at Miami, Oklahoma, November 8, 1927. 

List of officers elected at the Oklahoma State Hospital Association meeting, 
Miami, Oklahoma, November 7th and 8th, for the year 1927-1928: President, Dr. 
L. E. Emanuel, Chickasha; Vice-President, Mr. T. J. McGinty, Muskogee; 2nd 
Vice-President, Mr. J. H. Rucks, Wesley Hospital; Oklahoma City; Secretary, Dr. 
A. J. Weeden, Duncan; Committeeman — Southeastern District, Dr. W. T. Tilly, 
Muskogee; Committeeman — Southwestern District, Dr. T. M. Adernold, El Reno; 
Committeeman, Northwestern District, Miss Pearl Baker, Enid; Committeeman, 
Northeastern District, Mr. G. M. London, Miami. Honorary Life Member, Dr. B. 
A. Wilkes, St. Louis, Mo. 

13 See Appendix C for list of references for material used in this article, pro- 
gram of first joint meeting of the state hospital associations of Kansas, Missouri, 
and Oklahoma, and, also, Oklahoma State Hospital Association officers 1925-1944, 
inclusive. 



The Beginnings of the Oklahoma State Hospital Association 347 



APPENDIX A 



The following is the first full-time independent meeting and program 
without the supporting presence of the State Medical Association, and im- 
portant enough to be placed in the history of Oklahoma: 

PROGRAM 
OKLAHOMA STATE HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION 
Tulsa, Okla. 
December 9, 1924 

MORNING SESSION 
10 a. m. Municipal Auditorium 
Dr. Fred S. Clinton, presiding 

Invocation 

Address of Welcome on part of Tulsa Hospitals, 



Rev. John A. Rice 
Mrs. Dolly McNulty, 
Morningside Hospital 



Response 

Report of Committee on Constitution and By-Laws. 

Discussion 

Report of Secretary Treasurer 
The VN^'orkmans Compensation Act. Phil W. Davis, Jr. 

Attorney at Law, 
Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Discussion Opened. 

Dr. John Riley, 
St. Anthony's Hospital 
Oklahoma City, Okla. 
12:00 Noon — Lunch — Oklahoma Hospital. Guests of Dr. Fred S. Clinton 

AFTERNOON SESSION 
2:00 P.M. 
Dr. Fred S. Clinton, Presiding. 

Some Training School Problems 



Discussion: 



The Clinical Chart: 



Discussion: 



Dr. L. S. Willour, 
All Saints Hospital 
McAlester, Okla. 
Miss Lena A. Griep, 
Oklahoma Hospital, 
Tulsa, Okla. 
Dr. L. H. Carleton, 
Oklahoma Hospital, 
Tulsa, Okla. 
Dr. Adderhold, 
El Reno Sanitarium 
El Reno, Okla. 
Dr. L. J. Moorman, 
Oklahoma City 
Dr. R. M. Shephard, 
Talihina, Okla. 

Round Table: 

(You are requested to send in with your reply any questions you would 
like to have answered at this Round Table. Certain hospital administra- 
tors will be assigned to answer them. This will be an interesting part of 
the program.) 

6:00 P. M. Banquet Hotel Tulsa. 



The Tuberculosis Hospitals of Oklahoma. 



Discussion: 



348 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



EVENING SESSION Open to Public 

8:00 P.M. 

Piano Solo Mrs. B. E. Clulow 

President's Address: Dr. Fred S. Clinton, Tulsa, Okla. 

Vocal Solo Mrs. Belle Vickery Matthews 

Address: Dr. LeRoy Long, Oklahoma City 

Violin Solo Mrs. G. Garabedian 

Address: Prof. P. P. Claxton, Tulsa, Okla. 



APPENDIX B 

ANNUAL MEETING OF THE OKLAHOMA HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION 
Hotel Miami, Miami, Oklahoma, November 7 and 8, 1927 
Program, Monday, November 7, 1927; Morning Session. 

8:00 to 9:30 Registration. 

9:30 Meeting called to order. 

Dr. L. E. Emanual, President Oklahoma Hospital Associa- 
tion 

Invocation, Rev. A. P. Cameron 

Welcome Address, Rev. Don H. LaGrone 

Response, Hugh M. Scott, Superintendent U. S. Veterans 

Hospital, Muskogee 
Music, Sponsored by E. E. Mason, 
Appointments of Committees 

Constitution and By-Laws 

Nominations, 

Resolutions 

Legislature. 

Announcements, G. M. London, Superintendent 

Miami Baptist Hospital, Miami. 
Afternoon Session — 1:30 o'clock 
Group Singing 

Paper, "Cost and Charges" — John A. McNamara, 

Editor Modern Hospital 
Paper, "Selling Hospital to Public"— Dr. B. A. Wilkes, 

President, Mid-West Hospital Association. 
"Crippled Children of Oklahoma," J. N. Hamilton, Secretary 

Crippled Children's Association. 
"National Nursing Problems," Mrs. Belle A. Hoffman, 

Superintendent of Nurses, Oklahoma Hospital, Tulsa. 
"Vocational Education Pertaining to Hospital Curricula," 

Scott M. McGinnis. 
"Relation of the Nursing Board to Hospitals and Training 

Schools" Mrs. Ada Crocker, Superintendent Nurses, 

University Hospital, Oklahoma City. 
Sight-Seeing Tour of the Zinc Fields by Special Cars of 

the Northeast Oklahoma Railroad. 
6:30 p.m. Banquet ($1.25 per plate) 

8:00 p.m. Round Table Discussion of Hospital Problems, 

Led by Fred S. Clinton, M.D., President, 
Oklahoma Hospital, Tulsa, Oklahoma 

9:15 p.m. Music and Dancing. 



The Beginnings of the Oklahoma State Hospital Association 349 



TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 8, 1927, Morning Session, 9:30 o'clock 

Music, Sponsored by E. E. Mason. 
Paper, Dr. William H. Walsh, Executive Secretary- 
American Hospital Association. 
"Hospital Standardization," M. T. MacEachern, Associate 

Director American College of Surgeons. 
Paper, "Relation of Hospital to Community," 

M. O. Foley, Hospital Management. 
"Industrial Law in Oklahoma," Jim Hatcher, Chickasha 
Report of Committees: 

Constitution and By-Laws 

Nominations, 

Resolutions, 

Legislative. 

"Hospital Problems" — Mrs. Frances Chappel, Superintend- 
ent M. E. Hospital, Guthrie. 
LUNCH 

Afternoon Session — 1:30 o'clock 
Group Singing 

"Oklahoma Hospital Problems" — Paul Fesler, Superintend- 
ent University of Minnesota Hospital. 

Paper, "Small Rural Hospital, Its Future and Problems," 
J. C. Bunten, President Kansas Hospital Association. 

Paper, "A Plan for Staff-Interne Conference," Dr. Oscar 
E. Nadeau, Chicago, 111. 

Election of Officers. 

Selection of Meeting Place. 

ADJOURNMENT 



APPENDIX 0 

FIRST JOINT MEETING OF THE STATE HOSPITAL ASSOCIATIONS 
OF KANSAS, MISSOURI, OKLAHOMA. Hotel Baltimore, Kansas City, 
May 27-28, 1927: 

PROGRAM 
Friday, May 27th; Morning Session, 9:30. 

Registration. 

Meeting called to order, B. A. Wilkes, M.D., President Missouri Hospital 
Association 

Invocation, Reverend Robert Nelson Spencer 

Address of Welcome, E. W. Caveness, M.D., Director of Health, Kansas City. 
Response, B. A. Wilkes, M.D. 
Reporters, Officers and Committees 

Announcement, Program Details, Mr. J. R. Smiley, Superintendent St. Luke's 
Hospital, Kansas City. 

EXHIBITS AND SOCIAL 
Afternoon Session 1:30 

Grading Program of Nursing Schools, Miss May Ayres Burgess, Ph.D., Di- 
rector Committee on Grading of Nursing Schools, New York. 

Address, The Endowment of Hospitals, Jabez N. Jackson, M.D., President, 
American Medical Association 

Address, What is a Class A Hospital? M. T. MacEachern, M.D., Associate 
Director, American College of Surgeons 

Open Forum, Discussion: Shall A Missouri Valley Hospital Association 
be Formed? 



350 Chronicles of Oklahoma 

ENTERTAINMENT— THEATRE PARTY— COMPLIMENTARY 
Saturday, May 28th, Morning Session 
Exhibits and Social until 10:00 o'clock. 

Paper: The Position Occupied by the Hospitals in their Respective Com- 
munities, L. E. Emanuel, M.D., President, Oklahoma Hospital Asso- 
ciation. 

Discussion: J. T. Axtell, M.D., Secretary and Treasurer, Kansas Hospital 
Association. 

Paper: A Triangle, The Basis of Every Hospital's Success, J. C. Bunten, 

M.D., President, Kansas Hospital Association. 
Discussion, Fred S. Clinton, M.D., Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

BUSINESS MEETINGS OF STATE ASSOCIATIONS 
AFTERNOON SESSION 

Automobile tour, visiting hospitals, 2:00 p.m. 

EVENING SESSION 

Dinner, 6:30 P.M. 

Impressions of First Sectional Meeting, Rev. R. D. S. Putney, Superintend- 
ent, St. Luke's Hospital, St. Louis. 

Round Table, L. H. Burlingham, M.D., Superintendent, Barnes Hospital, 
St. Louis. 

ADJOURNMENT 

OUR EXHIBITORS: 

Beamish China and Glassware Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

Glassware and China 
Colson-Missouri Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Casters and Wheeled Equipment. 
Duff and Repp Furniture Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

Furniture. 
Ersehell Davis, Inc., Kansas City, Mo. 

Physicians' and Surgeons' Supplies 
Hygienic Fibre Co., New York, 

Brushes and Janitor's Supplies 
Hettinger Bros. Mfg. Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

Hospital and Surgeons Supplies. 
T. M. James & Sons China Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

Glassware and China. 
H. D. Lee Mercantile Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

Wholesale Groceries. 
Lewis Mfg. Co., Walpole, Mass. 

Dressings and Gauze 
Meinicke and Co., New York, 

Hospital Supplies 
Albert Pick & Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

Kitchen Equipment, etc. 
Ridenour-Baker Groc. Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

Wholesale Grocers 
Rosenthal X-Ray Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

X-Ray Equipment and Supplies 
St. Louis Flexo-tile Floor Co., St. Louis, Mo„ 

Composition Floors 
Smith & Davis Mfg. Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Hospital Beds 
Wyant-Carlson Wholesale Groc. Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

Wholesale Groceries 
Victor X-Ray Corporation, Kansas City, Mo. 

X-Ray Equipment and Supplies. 
Universal Hospital Supply Co., Chicago, 111. 

Hospital Supplies. 



The Beginnings of the Oklahoma State Hospital Association 



MID-WEST HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION 
OFFICERS 



Dr. B. A. Wilkes, President 

Dr. Fred S. Clinton, Vice-President 

Mr. Walter J. Grolton, Sec-Treasurer 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



Missouri Section: 

Dr. L. H. Burlingham, Supt. Barnes Hospital, St. Louis, Mo. 

Dr. Rush E. Castelaw, Supt. Wesley Hospital, Kansas City, Mo. 

Miss Muriel Anscombe, Supt. Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Mo. 

Oklahoma Section: 

Dr. T. B. Hinson, Enid, Oklahoma. 

Dr. Frank McGreger, Mangrum, Oklahoma. 

Mrs. McNulty, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Kansas Section: 

Rev. L. M. Riley, Supt. Wesley Hospital, Wichita, Kansas. 
Dr. J. T. Axtell, Supt. Christian Hospital, Newton, Kansas 
Mrs. V. A. Kettering, Supt. Grace Hospital, Hutchinson, Kansas. 



* 



* 



* 



* 



* 



STATE AND REGIONAL HOSPITAL ASSOCIATIONS 



Alabama Hospital Assn. 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Mid-West 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 



New England 
New Jersey 
New York 
North Carolina 
North Dakota 
Ohio 

Oklahoma, May 21, 1919 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Private Hospitals, Inc. Assn. 
Rhode Island 
South Carolina 
South Dakota 
Texas 

Tri-State (111. Ind. Wis.) 

Virginia 

Washington 

Western Hospitals Assn. 
West Virginia 
Wisconsin 



352 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



OKLAHOMA STATE HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION OFFICERS 
1925 to 1944 inclusive 
Officers elected December 9, 1924, at Tulsa, Oklahoma, for year 1'925: 
Fred S. Clinton, M.D., Tulsa, Oklahoma, President 

McLain Rogers, M.D., Clinton, Oklahoma, 1st Vice President 
A. S. Risser, M.D., Blackwell, Oklahoma, 2nd Vice President 
Mr. Paul H. Fesler, Oklahoma City, Secretary-Treasurer 



Year 


President 


Vice President 




Secretary-Treasurer 


1926 


Paul H. Fesler 


L. E. Emanuel, M.D. 


A. 


J. 


Weedn, M.D. 


1927 


L. E. Emanuel, M.D. 


J. H. Rucks 


A. 


J. 


Weedn, M.D. 


1928 


L. E. Emanuel, M.D. 


J. H. Rucks 


A. 


J. 


Weedn, M.D. 


1929 


J. H. Eucks 


Mrs. Hardy 


A. 


J. 


Weedn, M.D. 


1930 


H. H. Rucks 


T. M. Aderhold, M.D. 


A. 


J. 


Weedn, M.D. 


1931 


Frank H. McGregor, M.D. 


T. M. Aderhold, M.D. 


A. 


J. 


Weedn, M.D. 


1932 


T. M. Aderhold, M.D. 


R. L. Loy, Jr. 


A. 


J. 


Weedn, M.D. 


1933 


A. J. Weedn, M.D. 


T. B. Hinson, M.D. 


R. 


L. 


Loy, Jr. 


1934 


A. J. Weedn, M.D. 


T. B. Hinson, M.D. 


R. 


L. 


Loy, Jr. 


1935 


T. B. Hinson, M.D. 


D. I. McNulty 


R. 


L. 


Loy, Jr. 


1936 


Mrs. D. I. McNulty 


W. L. Knight, M.D. 


R. 


L. 


Loy, Jr. 


1937 


R. L. Loy. Jr. 


W. L. Knight, M.D. 


C. 


B. 


Hanna 


1938 


R. L. Loy, Jr. 


E .T. Olsen, M.D. 


C. 


B. 


Hanna 


1939 


E. T. Olsen, M.D. 


Roy Alexander 


H. 


Albert Taylor 


1940 


E. T. Olsen, M.D. 


Roy Alexander 


H. 


Albert Taylor 






R. 


L. 


Loy, Jr. (Acting 


1941 


L. E. Emanuel, M.D. 


Earl U. Benson 




Sec-Tr.) 


1942 


L. E. Emanuel, M.D. 


Earl U. Benson 


J. 


0. 


Bush, Jr. 


1943 


Earl U. Benson 


Sister Mary Anna 


J. 


0. 


Bush, Jr. 


1944 


Earl XJ. Benson 


Fred Patterson, M.D. 


R. 


R. 


Dickey, Secretary 



Harry Smith, Treasurer 
J. 0. Bush, Jr., 
President-elect. 



REFERENCES 

Thoburn, Joseph B., and Wright, Muriel H., Oklahoma; A History of the 
State and Its People (New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, Inc., 
1926), vols. I and II. 

The Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association, Muscogee, Okla- 
homa, Volume II, No. 12, Muscogee, Oklahoma, May 1910, page 425. 

Modern Hospital (Modern Hospital Publishing Co., Inc., 22-24 East On- 
tario Street, Chicago, O. F. Ball, President), J. J. Weber, Managing Editor. 
Both of these men gave the Oklahoma State Hospital Association con- 
tinuous and consistent support in all hospital and related endeavors from 
1915. 

Hospital Management, published monthly (Crain Publishing Company, 537 
South Dearborn Street, Chicago, Illinois), C. D. Crain, Managing Editor, 
followed by Matthew O. Foley. (No two men were ever more alert and 
enterprising; willing to vigoriously champion any new and rational under- 
taking.) 

American Hospital Association, 18 East Division Street, Chicago, 111., 
George Bugbee, Executive Secretary, and Kenneth Williamson, Secretary, 
Council on Association Development. Personal communication, March 31, 
1944. 

The American Saturday Night (Dexter Moss Publishing Company, Tulsa), 
December 13, 1924 issue, "Wants Legislature to Revise Workmens Compen- 
sation Law"; also includes copy of resolution at Tulsa, December 9, 1924, 
by the Oklahoma State Hospital Association. 

Address, by invitation, to the Missouri State Hospital Association, St. 
Louis, Missouri, May 17, 1926, Fred S. Clinton, M.D., Tulsa, Okla. Reprint 
from July 1926 issue of Medical Herald and Physiatherapist, Kansas City, 
Missouri, Charles Wood Fassett, M.D., Managing Editor. 



The Beginnings of the Oklahoma State Hospital Association 353 



President's Address by Fred S. Clinton, M.D., before the Annual meet- 
ing of the Midwest Hospital Association, Mayo Hotel, Tulsa, Okla. April 
25, 1930. Reprint from The Bulletin, American Hospital Association July, 
1930. 

See Feb. 1919 issue, p. 23, "Hospital Management Should Report Organ- 
ization of Tulsa Council of Hospitals," January 18, 1919; Pres. Fred S. 
Clinton, M.D.; Secretary C. L. Reeder, M.D.; Treasurer Mrs. D. I. Browne 
(Supt. Morningside Hospital), and W. E. Wright, M.D., P. and S. Hospital. 
The March 1919 issue, p. 31, contains a notice, "Oklahoma will organize." 
Call issued for meeting in Muskogee to form a State Hospital Association, 
May 21, 1919, at Severs Hotel. See June issue, p. 25, contains report of 
meeting. 

Hospital Management continued faithful and constructive reporting 
and support as long as the writer was active. 

A few references without quotations from the Journal of the Oklahoma 
State Medical Association. Standing Com. 1924, 17:29; National Hosp. Day. 
Com. 1924, 17:117; Standing Com. 1924, 17:309; program, M. T. MacEach- 
eron (M.D.) "Fundamentals of efficient Medical Service in hospitals" (title 
only) Journal Oklahoma S. M. Assn., 1925, 18:114; J. Okla. S. M. Assn., 
1925 XVIII, 113, May; Report of Com. on Hosp. J. Okla. S. M. Assn.. 1925 
XVIII, 163 July; J. Okla. S. M. Assn., 1926, XIX, 20 January; J. Okla. S. M. 
Assn., 1926, XIX; 328, December; J. Okla. S. M. Assn., 1927, 20:83, March; 
J. Okla. S. M. Assn.. 1927, 20; 296; J. Okla. S. M. Assn., 1927, XX: 103, 
April; J. Okla. S. M. Assn., 1928, XXI: 50, February; J. Okla. S. M. Assn., 
1928, XXI: 207, July; J. Okla. S. M. Assn., 1929, XXII: 234, June; J. 
Okla. S. M. Assn., 1929, XXII: 136, April; Fred S. Clinton, M.D., F.A.C.S., 
"The First Hospitals in Tulsa," The Chronicles of Oklahoma, XXII (Spring, 
1944), pp. 42-69. Additional material on file Historical Society, editorial 
files, Fred S. Clinton manuscripts. 

The writer desires to express his appreciation to the following persons 
for assistance and coopei'ation in the preparation of this article: Mrs. 
William Telford, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Pat Fite, M.D., Muscogee; John F. Park, 
M.D., McAlester; Mrs. Louise Whitham, Sponsor Tulsa Historical Society; 
Veneta Barlow, Librarian, Tulsa County Medical Society; M. F. MacEach- 
eron, M.D., Associate Director, American College of Surgeons, Chicago; 
L. Margueriete Prime, Library and Department of Literary Research, Amer- 
ican College of Surgeons; Angle Debo, Author; James H. Gardner, Tulsa, 
Oklahoma; Phil W. Davis, Jr., Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

It is a privilege and pleasure to acknowledge the valuable aid and 
wise counsel of the writer's wife, Jane Heard Clinton. Sincere appreciation 
is also expressed to the Publication Committee and the editors of the 
Oklahoma Historical Society for their invitation, encouragement, and co- 
operation in this labor of love. — Fred S. Clinton 
Tulsa, April 15. 1944 



354 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



NOTES AND DOCUMENTS 

Spring Number of The Chronicles Requested 

Copies of the spring number of The Chronicles of Oklahoma 
for 1944 (Vol. XXII, Number 1) are needed by tbe Historical So- 
ciety, the demand having exceeded the supply soon after publica- 
tion. Those having* copies for spring (1944), which they do not plan 
to preserve, are requested to return them to the Oklahoma Historical 
Society, Historical Building, Oklahoma City 5, Oklahoma. The 
spring number of The Chronicles (1944) was the first appearing 
with the new cover carrying an imprint of the Oklahoma State 
Flag in colors. 

0 

State Capitol Commission Record 

A complete transcript of the record of the "Proceedings of the 
State Capitol Commission of the State of Oklahoma" is now in the 
Library of the Society, typewritten from the original record in the 
Office of the Secretary of State by Mrs. Edith Mitchell, now Cus- 
todian of the Newspaper Department, and Mrs. Rella Looney, Clerk- 
Archivist, both of the Historical Society staff. The completed tran- 
script consists of 1,240 legal size pages, typed double space, bound 
in two volumes. 

The State Capitol Commission had supervision of all matters 
in the construction of the State Capitol Building and was provided 
for by the State Legislature by an act approved May 23, 1913 {State 
of Oklahoma, Session Laws of 1913, pp. 58-97). This Commission 
was organized on October 4, 1913: W. B. Anthony, Chairman; P. J. 
Goulding, Vice-Chairman ; S. A. Douglas, Member, and E. W. Gist, 
Temporary Secretary. On July 8, 1914, Ira Mitchell of Wynne- 
wood, Oklahoma, was selected as Secretary by the State Capitol Com- 
mission, all members present. 

Contract for architect was signed by members of the Capitol 
Commission with the firm of S. A. Layton and S. Wemyss Smith 
for preparing plans and specifications for the Capitol Building of 
the State of Oklahoma, on March 20, 1914.^ Ground was broken to 
begin excavation work on Monday, July 20, 1914, a ceremony mark- 
ing the occasion attended by Governor Lee Cruce and other State 
officials. 

Re-organization of the State Capitol Commission was provided 
by an act of the Legislature approved on March 18, 1915 (State of 
Oklahoma, Session Laws of 1915, pp. 240-244), by which act the 
Governor served as a member and presided and performed the duties 
of chairman at all meetings of the Commission. In its first meet- 



^The Chronicles of Oklahoma XX (Spring, 1944), No. 1, pp. 122-23. 



Notes and Documents 



355 



ing after the approval of this act, the Commission created a Citizens 
Advisory Committee with officers and members as f oIIoavs : Joseph 
Huekins, Jr., President; Ed. S. Vanght, Secretary, and E. K. Gay- 
lord, Tom Hale, H. W. Gibson, P. M. Pirtle, and S. W. Hogan.2 

The contract for the construction of the State Capitol Building 
was signed with the James Stewart & Company, Inc., on August 3, 
1915, in a meeting of the Capitol Commission with all members 
present, the signatures appearing on the contract as follows : James 
SteAvart & Co., Inc., Contractor, by J. H. Fredickson, Its Attorney 
in fact; The State of Oldahoma by R. L. Williams, Governor and 
Ex-Officio Chairman of the State Capitol Commission of the State 
of Oklahoma, P. J. Goulding, S. A. Douglas, W. B. Anthony; and 
attested by W. A. Rowan, Ass't. Secretary, and Ira Mitchell, Sec- 
retary of the State Capitol Commission. 

On October 2, 1915, Ira Mitchell resigned the position of Sec- 
retary to the Commission, his private business affairs requiring his 
entire time and attention, and A. N. Leecraft of Durant, Secretary 
to the Governor, was elected permanetit Secretary to the Commis- 
sion without compensation other than that with his position as Sec- 
retary to the Governor. 

The corner stone of the Capitol Building was laid the afternoon 
of November 16, 1915, in special ceremony. A parade through the 
principal streets of Oklahoma City to the building site was joined 
in by members of the Commission and other State officials, mem- 
bers of the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, 
members of the National Guard, officials of Oklahoma, and private 
citizens of the State. The program opened with music by the India 
Temple Band and the "AppoUo Club." Invocation was given by 
Bishop Francis K. Brooke. The laying of the corner stone was 
under the supervision of the Masonic Grand Lodge, with M.W. Aimer 
Monroney, Grand Master, officiating. In addition to the addresses 
by the Governor and Ex-Officio Chairman of the State Capitol Com- 
mission and Chief Justice Matthew J. Kane of the Supreme Court 
of Oklahoma, addresses were also given by M. W. Aimer E. Mon- 
roney and R. W. Woodson E. Norvell. R. W. W. W. Robinson 
gave the Benediction. 

The Sixth State Legislature on March 16, 1917, passed House 
Resolution No. 46, as follows, the "building having been expedi- 
tiously completed":^ 

"Whereas, this great undertaking has been accomplished without a 
suspicion or intimation of graft or extravagance; 

"Be it Resolved, That we hereby tender on behalf of the people of the 
State our earnest commendation for their earnest and efficient efforts in 
building the Capitol, the intelligent care and supervision they have given 
to this great responsibility, and the value of their services in the discharge 
of their duty." 



^Ibid., XXI (March, 1943), No. 1, p. 35; ibid., V (March, 1928), No. 1, pp. 
100-01. 

'^Ibid., X (December, 1932), No. 1, p. 613. 



356 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



The Oklahoma State Capitol is of Classic Greek and Roman 
architecture, built of white Indiana limestone with a base of pink 
Oklahoma granite, with approaches of Georgia granite, and floors 
of Alabama marble and stairways of Vermont marble, fully com- 
pleted within the limits of the legislative appropriation of $1,500,- 
000.* After a report by the architects that the James Stewart & 
Company had completed their contract, the building was accepted 
by the Capitol Commission in a meeting on November 10, 1917, with 
all members present. Governor R. L. Williams presiding and the 
Minutes of the meeting attested by A. N. Leecraft, Secretary. 

The transcript record of the Proceedings of the State Capitol 
Commission shows that the last meeting was held on November 22, 
1918, with all the original members present, except Patrick J. Gould- 
ing, deceased, his successor as member, E. K. Gaylord having been 
duly appointed being present, and R. L. Williams, Governor and 
Chairman presiding. ^ The Minutes were attested by A. N. Leecraft, 
Secretary. 

0 

Keeping the Record Straight 

The following historical correction for The Chronicles, summer 
number 1944 (Vol. XXII, Number 2), has been received addressed 
to the Editor: "In the summer edition of The Chronicles, in the 
article on Sir William Johnson, Baronet (page 174), Johnson is 
said to have visited England the year prior to his death in 1774. But 
Sir William Johnson, who came to America in 1737 never again 
saw his homeland. — W. N. P. Dailey, Author." 

0 

Tom Doran, Member op the Cherokee Strip Cow Punchers' 

Association 

The Historical Society museum has on display a large buffalo 
hide bearing the names of the members of the Cherokee Strip Cow 
Punchers Association organized September 21, 1920, and dedicated 
to all those identified with the cattle industry in the Cherokee Strip 
from 1874 to 1893 which marked the year of the opening of the 
Strip to homestead settlement. In carrying on the custom of placing 
a gold star on the buffalo skin beside the names of those members 
who are passing away through the years, a gold star is due by the 
name of Tom Dor an as he was best known to his old friends in 
Oklahoma. 

Thomas M. Doran was born September 25, 1859, in Morris, Illi- 
nois. As a lad of thirteen years, he came west to live with his cousin, 
Sam Maher, a lawyer and banker in Great Bend, Kansas, also in- 

4 Oklahoma Emblems and Historic Places compiled by the Oklahoma Library 
Commission 1937, Mrs. J. R. Dale, Secretary, and Dee Paradis Jackson, Traveling 
Library; The Chronicles of Oklahoma, XXI (March, 1943), No. 1, p. 34. 

SIbid., X (December, 1932), No. 1, pp. 612-14. 



Notes and Documents 



357 



terested in the cattle business. It was here that the boy began his 
life as a coAvboy. He later made his home at Medicine Lodge, Kan- 
sas, and was one of the organizers of The Comanche Pool, associated 
with Charlie Coleord, and others in this early day venture in the 
cattle business of Kansas and Indian Territory. At the time of the 
opening of the Cherokee Strip, he proved up a claim near Woodward, 
Oklahoma Territory, and had a cattle ranch about twenty miles 
south of the town. He was elected and served as County Clerk 
of Woodward County at one time. In 1908, he moved to New Mex- 
ico where he engaged in the hotel business at different times in 
Clovis, Las Vegas, and Santa Fe where he was making his home at 
the time of his death at the age of 84 years, June 13, 1944. He is 
survived by his wife and a son, Paul, engaged in the oil business 
in Texas. His two grandsons are serving in the armed forces : Lt. 
Thomas S. Doran, under the command of General Clark, in Italy; 
and Lt. Eichard P. Doran, under the command of General Stilwell 
in India. 

The following article appeared in a Medicine Lodge, Kansas, 
newspaper, The Barber County Index for June 29, 1944: 

"Tom Doran, who before his death recently, was probably the last re- 
maining member of the posse that captured the men who robbed the Medi- 
cine Lodge bank just 50 years ago, was buried in Medicine Lodge, last 
week. His ashes were brought here from Santa Fe, New Mexico, and 
placed in the family lot in Highland cemetery. 

"The death of Doran recalls again an event in Medicine Lodge which 
in the annals of this town is comparable to the discovery of America by 
Columbus or the Revolutionary or the Civil War in the history of the 
United States. On Wednesday, April 30, 1884, four men from the neigh- 
boring city of Caldwell, two of them city officials, rode into town, shot 
and killed the cashier and president of the bank, robbed the bank and 
left in a hurry. They were followed by a posse of determined men and 
the bandits were captured and hung to an elm tree at the eastern edge 
of town. Old timers say that Doran was the last survivor of that famous 
posse who trapped the bandits and murderers in a canyon southwest of 
Medicine Lodge. The men were then brought to town and hanged that 
evening when a crowd of armed men overpowered the sheriff and posse. 

"In addition to -Doran, the members of the posse were Alex R. Mc- 
Kinney, Barney O'Connor, Vernon Lytle, C. G. Taliaferro, Geo. Friedley, 
Roll Clark, John Flemming, Nate Priest, Wayne McKinney, Leed Bradley, 
Howard Martin, and others." 

0 

John James Abert, Colonel U. S. Topographical Engineers, 1838 

One of the most valuable original documents in the Oklahoma 
Historical Society is the patent which was issued by the United 
States to the Choctaw Nation over a century ago, confirming the 
property rights of the people of this nation to all the country now 
iacluded in Southern Oklahoma, under the terms of the Treaty of 
Dancing Rabbit Creek, in Mississippi, on September 27, 1830. The 



358 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



patent bears the signatures of John Tyler, President of the United 
States ; Daniel Webster, Secretary of State ; John C. Spencer, Secre- 
tary of War; T. Hartley Crawford, Commissioner of Indian Af- 
fairs ; William J. Williamson, as Recorder of the General Land 
Office; and the marginal signature of John J. Abert, Colonel U. S. 
Topographical Engineers. The document was designed and executed 
with pen and ink, water color, and gold leaf on parchment in the 
office of Colonel Abert, the pen text being a model of its class. 

Elsewhere in this number of The Chronicles appears a review 
of the book Guadal P'a, the Journal of Lieutenant J. W. Abert, from 
Bent's Fort to St. Louis in 1845, an interesting and important con- 
tribution in the history of explorations in the Southwest. Lievitenant 
Abert was the son of Colonel John James Abert. Like his father 
the son carried on the military tradition of his family in America 
and graduated from the Military Academy at West Point, class of 
1838. This was the same year that the father was commissioned 
colonel in the Corps of Topographical Engineers, the son being trans- 
ferred from the Infantry to the Topographical Engineers in 1843, the 
^year after the execution of the Choctaw patent. Talented in drawing, 
he made an outstanding record in this work while a student at West 
Point, which undoubtedly influenced his transfer from the Infantry 
service. This leads one to wonder if Lieutenant Abert may have 
had a part in the actual work of designing and executing the Choc- 
taw patent itself. In 1848, he was returned on assignment to the 
Academy and served as Assistant Professor of Drawing there for 
two years, a circumstance pointed out by Dr. H. Bailey Carroll, 
Editor, in his introduction to the book Guadal P'a. Doctor Carroll 
further stated in his introduction of this volume (pp. 3-4) : 

"The American branch of the Abert family originated with one John 
Abert who, during the war of the Revolution, came to America from France 
as a part of the force of Comte de Rochambeau, who, in 1780, landed at 
Newport, Rhode Island. In 1781, Rochambeau marched to the neighborhood 
of New York, effected a junction with Washington, and moved rapidly 
southward with him upon Cornwallis at Yorktown. Thus, was the grand- 
father of J. W. Abert present at a decisive moment in the nation's history." 

0 

American Indian Exposition, Anadarko, 1944 

New features marked the American Indian Exposition at Ana- 
darko this year, an annual all Indian event that has been making 
history in Oklahoma for thirteen years. This year most of the young 
Indians were serving their native country in the war overseas. 

Through the courtesy of the Office of Navy Public Relations, 
Oklahoma City, the official U. S. Navy photograph appearing in 
this number of The Chronicles on the opposite page 358 was re- 
ceived by the Editorial Department, together with the following note 
explaining the photograph : 



Notes and Documents 



359 



"It was a great day for two proud American parents when their WAVE 
daughters came home in time to celebrate with them the American Indian 
Exposition at Anadarko, Oklahoma. It is the Beaver family, all Delaware- 
Shawnee Indians. The station photographer from the Naval Air Technical 
Training, Center, Norman, Okla.. caught them all together against this tee- 
pee background on the Exposition Pageant grounds. They are, left to 
right: Mrs. Beaver, their mother; Delores, S2c; Jones Beaver, father; and 
Beulah, S2c. Their little brother Roger, is sporting a new hat and an 
all-day sucker. The WAVES, who are stationed at the Naval Air Station, 
Norman, are being congratulated by one of the dancers in the pageant, 
Jack Hokeah, Kiowa. The Beaver family lives at Binger, Okla." 

The four-day exposition at Anadarko this year (August 16-19), 
with visiting representatives from thirty-two Indian tribes in Okla- 
homa and other Indian tribes in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, 
presented as an outstanding program, the "Pageant of Great Gifts," 
depicting contributions to American culture and civilization made 
by the American Indians. 

■ ■ — ^0 — ■ — — I 

Oklahoma War Memorial Records 

The Editorial Department wishes to express appreciation and 
make acknowledgements to the following friends of the Historical 
Society for their assistance in securing data for the records of the 
Oklahoma War Memorial — World War II : Glenn W. Nolle, Depart- 
ment Service Officer, American Legion of Oklahoma, Historical 
Building, Oklahoma City; Office Navy Public Relations (by Ruth 
M. Tjaden, Lieutenant- jg, USNR), Federal Building, Oklahoma City; 
Mrs. G. Harland Davis, Dwight Indian Training School, Vian (Rt. 
2), Oklahoma; Norah L. Francis, Librarian, Carnegie, Oklahoma; 
Mrs. Dee Paradis Jackson, Oklahoma Library Commission, State 
Capitol, Oklahoma City; Dr. Fred S. Clinton, 230 V/oodward Blvd., 
Tulsa 5, Oklahoma; Mrs. E. C. Gleason, Hobart, Oklahoma; Mrs. 
E. W. Meek, Ponca City, Oklahoma; Mrs. E. U. Sloan and the Amer- 
ican Legion Post, Kingfisher, Oklahoma; Major Charles D. Kellar, 
Operations Officer, Adjutant General's Office, State of Oklahoma, 
Oklahoma City. 



360 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Journal & Letters of Philip Tickers Fithian, 1773-1774: A Planta- 
tion Tutor of the Old Dominion. Edited, with an IntrodTietion, 
by Hunter Dickinson Farish. (Williamsburg, Virginia : Colonial 
Williamsburg, Incorporated, 1943. Pp. xlv, 323. Eight illiis- 
trations, Appendix and Index. $4.00.) 

A fascinating picture of the ' ' Golden Age ' ' of Virginia that cast 
its light over life in the Old South for more than a century is found 
in the Journal & Letters of Philip Vickers Fithian, the original 
manuscripts of which are now in the Library of Princeton Univer- 
sity. This volume with its attractive foremat is the third in the 
Williamsburg Restoration Historical Studies, the scope of the series 
having been defined by the Editor, Hunter Dickinson Farish, as the 
history of Williamsburg, Virginia, in the eighteenth century and 
"the origin, development and expansion of the civilization of which 
this city is the center." 

In the two interesting chapters of his introduction. Doctor Parish 
gives a general portrayal of life of the Virginia planter class and 
notes on the Robert "King" Carter family in the half century be- 
fore the American Revolution, preparing the reader for Fithian 's 
own first-hand account of life at Nomini Hall, written when as a 
young Princeton graduate, he spent a year (1773-1774) in Tidewater 
Virginia as the teacher of the children of Robert Carter, III. 

The descriptions and narrative in the Journal are those of one 
who saw for the first time the beauty and charm of Virginia planter 
life. The letters reveal his intimate thoughts and his loyalty to his 
beloved Laura and his friends back home in New Jersey. A devout 
Christian preparing for the ministry, reared in the tradition of Gal- 
vanism, and firmly believing in the democratic spirit, Fithian did 
not fail to set forth some of the dark side and the cruelties which 
shadowed a feudal society in a setting that was the scene of ex- 
pansive beginnings of the Industrial Age in the AVestern World. 
Yet this only heightens by contrast his gentleness and his tinder- 
standing and affection for his gracious, pleasure loving friends of 
the southern aristocracy. 

Fithian 's Journal, with deletions, was published by the Prince- 
ton Historical Association in 1900 but has long been unavailable by 
the general public. The new edition published as one of the Williams- 
burg Studies gives for the first time additional parts of the journal 
and the letters that make it a a valuable social and economic source 
on Colonial Virginia. With Doctor Parish's introduction, the book 
presents a real, human interest story that will be read by lovers 



Book Reviews 



361 



of American romance as well as by students and scholars in their 
historical research. 

— Muriel H. "Wright 

Oklahoma Historical Society 

0 

Guadal P'a. The Journal of Lieutenant J. W. Abert, from Bent's 
Fort to St. Louis in 1845. Edited, with introduction and notes, 
by H. Bailey Carroll. (Canyon, Texas: Panhandle Historical 
Society, 1941. Pp.. XX, 121. Portrait sketch by Harold Bug- 
bee. Maps and Index. $3.50.) 

The important Journal written by Lieutenant James W. Abert, 
of the U. S. Topographical Engineers, in command of a government 
expedition to complete a reconnaissance of the Canadian River from 
Eastern New Mexico through Oklahoma in 1845, was almost over- 
looked by early day historians. The manuscript of this narrative 
in the National Archives in Washington has been brought to light 
and edited by H. Bailey Carroll, Professor of history in North Texas 
Agricultural College. Published in attractive foremat, the book 
proves that current biographical volumes in this country missed an 
opportunity for some colorful paragraphs in failing to list a biog-, 
raphy of Lieutenant Abert. 

The title Guadal P'a, explained in the Editor's introduction, 
is the Kiowa Indian name for the Canadian River. The term means 
"Red River," the name by which the Canadian River of Texas and 
Oklahoma has long been known in New Mexico. The selection of the 
name Guadal P'a is a deserved recognition of the Kiowa language. 

The special detachment of troops assigned to the command of 
Lieutenant Abert by Captain John C. Fremont set forth from Bent's 
Fort on the Arkansas River in Colorado and proceeded over Raton 
Pass on the mountain branch of the Santa Fe Trail. Following 
the headwaters of the Canadian to its Grand Canyon, thence cross- 
ing the Mosquero Flats and proceeding down Ute Creek to the Cana- 
dian, this river was followed through Eastern New Mexico and 
across a large portion of the Texas Panhandle. In this region, the 
expedition veered southward to the headwaters of the North Fork 
of Red River and back again to the Canadian, proceeding along al- 
most its whole course through what is now Oklahoma. In preparing 
his notes. Doctor Carroll traveled the entire route cheeking Abert 's 
Journal every mile of the way. 

The opening lines of the Journal state briefly the reason for 
this military reconnaissance which began at Bent's Fort in August, 
1845, and ended at St. Louis in November of the same year. The 
countless tortuous bends of the Canadian made it difficult for the 
expedition to keep in sight of the river. There were times when 



362 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



trails had to be cut and dug out before the loads of supplies could 
be kept moving forward. The Editor has pointed out that trans- 
portation was almost exclusively on mules, making it the great mii- 
lada expedition across the plains. Perhaps, Lieutenant Abert's suc- 
cess was partly the means of making the mule traditional Avith the 
United States Army. 

More space was given in the Journal to descriptions of places 
in Oklahoma than to those of any of the states through which the 
expedition passed. When camped within two miles of Eufaula in 
the Creek Nation, Lieutenant Abert recorded that his men ate bread 
made of cornmeal and sweet potatoes given them by an Indian resi- 
dent and found it "exceedingly agreeable." The passing of two 
wagons was noted carrying specie which a government agent was 
taking across the country to pay soldiers. Traveling north from 
Fort Gibson, the way was seen "literally lined with the wagons of 
emigrants to Texas, and from this time until we arrived at St. Louis 
we continued daily to see hundreds of them. ' ' The interesting, narra- 
tive style proved Lieutenant Abert a keen observer, one who enjoyed 
the beauty of wild flowers, the sight of wild animals and birds and 
the natural scenes of the country during his journey through Okla- 
homa a century ago. 

First and last in preparing his manuscript for publication, the 
Editor, Doctor Carroll, made a special study of southwestern ex- 
plorers and trail-makers. He traveled hundreds of miles in an ef- 
fort to retrace Abert's route across the Plains. He has traveled 
thousands of miles over other trails in the Southwest, during which 
he has met "many interesting and helpful people — those 'who know 
the land' — trail drivers, wolf hunters, naturalists, and local histor- 
ians." He is co-author and author of a number of books on his- 
torical subjects in the Southwest. He is Associate Editor of the 
Southwestern Historical Quarterly and of the Panhandle-Plains His- 
torical Keview and Editor of the Junior Historian. His presenta- 
tion of Guadal P'a will be read and re-read with lively interest for 
the book will be kept and enjoyed for its first-hand descriptions of 
Oklahoma as a part of the Great Southwest. 

— Lona Shawver 

Oklahoma City 




WILLIAM BALSER SKIRVIN 



Necrologies 



363 



NECROLOGIES 

WILLIAM BALSER SKIEVIN 
1860-1944 

William Balser Skirvin, generally known as William B. or W. B. Skir- 
vin, died March 25, 1944. He had been a resident of the Territory of Okla- 
homa and the State of Oklahoma since 1906. He was born in the State 
of Michigan near the town of Sturgis. His childhood was spent there on 
a farm. 

His father was James Balser Skirvin and his mother was Mary Osborn 
(Skirvin). He was born on November 10, 1860. His mother died when he 
was eight years old, leaving him and his sister. Mary, as her only children. 
After his mother's death, his father engaged in business away from the 
home town of Sturgis, and he was left in the custody of his father's mother. 
His father became associated with one of his brothers in business in the 
State of Ohio. His father was married a second time to one Sarah Stillman 
of Bur Oak, Michigan. Of this marriage, two children were born — Clifford 
J. Skirvin and Floyd Skirvin. Clifford J. Skirvin died in Ada, Oklahoma, 
in April, 1928, and Floyd Skirvin is now residing in Battlecreek, Michigan. 

William B. Skirvin, as he was generally known, was raised by his 
grandmother until he was about fifteen years of age when he went west 
of the Mississippi River and to the town of Shenandoah, Iowa, where he 
apprenticed himself to one Dr. Chase and worked on the farm for Dr. 
Chase except while he was in school. After working for Dr. Chase for 
four years, he then returned to the State of Michigan and associated him- 
self with one C. A. Crosby of Kalamazoo, Michigan, who was engaged in 
selling farm machinery, and William B. Skirvin engaged in this line of 
work operating out of Kansas City. His work took him through Kansas 
and Nebraska. 

While so employed, he lived with one H. F. Reid in Wyandotte County. 
Kansas, and married one of the daughters of the said H. F. Reid, namely, 
Harriet Elizabeth Reid, who was generally referred to by him as Hattie. 
He and she established a home in Butler County, Kansas, and acquired 
a farm in said County. Later he traveled for S. A. Himo and Company of 
Lawrence, Kansas, which work carried him for the first time into Okla- 
homa Territory. He removed from Butler County, Kansas to Kansas City. 
He became associated with O. W. Shephard who had also married one of 
the daughters of the said H. F. Reid and he and 0. W. Shephard engaged 
in the real estate business in Kansas City. They became very close per- 
sonal and lifelong friends. 

In 1889, when Oklahoma Territory was opened to settlement, he and 
0. W. Shephard made the run into the new country. They started from 
Arkansas City, Kansas, and because of the crowded condition of the train, 
they rode into Guthrie on top of the train. They each acquired property 
in the new town of Guthrie which they sold shortly thereafter and he and 
0. W. Shephard removed to Galveston, Texas, and engaged in the real 
estate business in the growing City of Galveston. 0. W. Shephard re- 
mained there in business with William B. Skirvin three years when he 
returned to Kansas City and engaged in the banking business where he 
died in 1942. 

After engaging in the real estate business in Galveston for several 
years, he platted a town across the Bay on the mainland of Texas and 
on the main line of the Santa Fe Railroad between Houston and Galveston. 
He named this town Alta Loma. In his enterprising way he set about to 



364 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



discover fresh water for the use not only of his town, Alta Loma, but 
for that general area. He drilled several deep water wells, the first in 
the area, which furnished an adequate supply of fresh water, and water 
from these wells is still being used by the City of Galveston on Galveston 
Island. 

It was while so engaged that to him and his wife, Hattie, three chil- 
dren were born — Pearl Reid Skirvin, Marguerite Adelaide Skirvin and Orren 
William Skirvin, all of whom are still living. His home was in Galveston 
in the year 1900. In August, WOO, occurred the destructive Galveston storm. 
His family was away at the time but he was there and assisted in the 
rescue work of people who, but for his efforts, might have been victims 
of that flood. On several occasions in this effort he all but lost his life. 
The home in which he lived was washed off of its foundation and thousands 
of persons were drowned in this terrific catastrophe. He often stated that 
he believed had the storm lasted half an hour longer, there would not have 
been any persons left on the Island living. 

About this time, oil was discovered at Beaumont, Texas, and he en- 
gaged in the oil business in that area and his efforts were rewarded with 
an accumulation of considerable money. In 1906 he, with his family, re- 
moved to Oklahoma City, then a rapidly growing town, and engaged in the 
real estate business. Thereafter and in 1910 and 1911, he built the Skirvin 
Hotel now standing at the Northeast corner of First Street and Broadway 
in Oklahoma City. He later engaged in the oil business in the Healdton 
field in Carter County, Oklahoma; the Ada field in Pontotoc County, Okla- 
homa; the oil field near the town of El Dorado, Kansas, in 1917 and 1918, 
and in the Oklahoma City field in 1931. 

"William B. Skirvin was of Scotch descent. His people migrated from 
Scotland to the Colonies about the time of the Revolution. His father's two 
brothers. Captain C. J. Skirvin of the Seventh Indiana, and Charles Skirvin 
lost their lives during the War between the States. 

His wife, Harriet Reid Skirvin, died in Okahoma City in 1908, leaving 
surviving, her husband, William B. Skirvin and her three children. Pearl, 
Marguerite and 0. W. Skirvin. William B. Skirvin was never married after 
her death. His children were reared in Oklahoma City. Pearl R. Skirvin 
was married in 1917 to George Mesta of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Marguerite 
Skirvin was married in 1920 to one Robert Adams of New York City and 
of this union three children were born, Robert Skirvin Adams, Harriet Eliza- 
beth Adams and William Skirvin Adams who were adopted by George Tyson 
after his marriage to Marguerite Adams, their mother, and now bear his 
name. O. W. Skirvin of Oklahoma City, the third and youngest child of 
William B. Skirvin is now living in Oklahoma City. Robert Adams died 
and Marguerite is now Mrs. George Tyson, having married one George 
Tyson of Boston in 1937. 

William B. Skirvin was a man who made friends easily and kept them. 
While he never engaged in public affairs in the sense of seeking public 
office, he gave much of his time and money to civic enterprises and was 
always vitally interested in anything that had a tendency to upbuild Okla- 
homa, Oklahoma City and its people. He was a continuous member of 
the Oklahoma City Chamber of Commerce and a liberal contributor to the 
enterprises promoted by it. 

In 1929 he and his children began the erection of the Skirvin Tower 
Hotel and completed the same in 1934. This hotel now stands at the 
Northwest corner of First Street and Broadway in Oklahoma City and it 
and the Skirvin Hotel across the street are two of the outstanding hotels 
in the Southwest. 



Necrologies 



365 



He built the original hotel largely out of funds he acquired while re- 
siding in the State of Texas, and the accumulations therefrom. These 
monies were community property which he and his wife brought from 
Texas to Oklahoma City and upon her death, her children inherited her 
part of the said community estate. During his long life in Oklahoma, he 
never failed to recognize this interest of his children acquired from their 
said mother and many years before his death, in the interest of their wel- 
fare, had conveyed his interest in the properties to his said children. 

William B. Skirvin was a man of strong physique, vigorous mind, 
genial disposition and a progressive attitude in all matters of business 
and governmental concern. Perhaps there are few, if any, other men in 
business who are personally acquainted with more people throughout the 
State of Oklahoma than was he. His courteous and generous manner and 
attitude drew people to him. His children are of the same type. He was 
in good health and looked forward to a life of many more years of use- 
fulness when, on the 12th day of March, 1944, he sustained serious injuries 
in an automobile wreck from which injuries he died on March 25, 1944. 
His children, above mentioned, and his grandchildren survive him and are 
carrying on in a manner he would have them carry on. William B. Skirvin 
was a far-sighted business man — always looking for the upbuilding of his 
community and the welfare of the people as a whole and exceptionally 
devoted to his family. Those who had worked for him and for the hotels 
which he built, evidenced their love and affection for him by the tremend- 
ous attendance at his funeral service, March 27, 1^944. It can justly be 
said that he was one of the outstanding stalwart citizens of Oklahoma, his 
adopted State, and his efforts produced marks of progress, which are now, 
and will continue to be for a long number of years, not only useful insti- 
tutions, but monuments to his efforts and name. 

By Fred P. Branson. 

Muskogee, Oklahoma 



ENLOE VASSALLO VERNOR 
1879-1944 

Judge Enloe Vassallo Vernor was born on November 24, 1879, in Elk- 
horn, Washington County, Illinois, and died on March 25, 1944, in Muskogee, 
Oklahoma, with his widow and tv/o daughters surviving him. Interment 
was in Memorial Cemetery near Muskogee, Oklahoma. His father, Richard 
Enloe Vernor, died April 22, 1922, and his mother, Mrs. Mary Culley Vernor, 
survives him. 

Judge Vernor's paternal grandfather was Zenas Vernor who was a 
patentee of a section of land in what was afterwards Washington County, 
Illinois, for services rendered in the United States Army in helping to 
subdue the Black Hawk Indians who were committing numerous and serious 
depredations against the settlers, on which in 1898 a substantial dwelling 
house was built by him and which still stands on the original site. On 
account of the inability to obtain nails the entire structure was put together 
with wooden pegs. The house has ever remained in the Vernor family 
since it was patented to Judge Vernor's grandfather, Zenas Vernor, and is 
now owned by Vilas V. Vernor, also a grandson of Zenas Vernor, and a 
brother of Judge Vernor, now a resident and practicing attorney of Mus- 
kogee for many years. 

Richard Enloe Vernor, his father, was a judge in the county and state 
of his residence. He was a staunch democrat; and notwithstanding the 
fact that that part of Illinois was largely Republican in politics, he was 
re-elected to judicial office successively for many years. 



366 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



Judge Enloe V. Vernor grew to manhood in the county of his birth 
and his father's family for many years made their home in the town of 
Nashville, Washington County, Illinois, in which town and county Judge 
Vernor received his primary education. Early in life he served as city 
clerk in the town of Nashville, and later had a brief experience as editor 
of the Nashville Democrat. In 1904 he graduated from the law department 
of Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri. After considering several 
localities he cast his lot in Muskogee, then Indian Territory, as his per- 
manent location. 

The Resolutions adopted by the Muskogee Bar Association at its meet- 
ing after the death of Judge Vernor recite: — 

"For approximately forty years Judge Vernor was our friend and neigh- 
bor, first as a practicing attorney and then as a Judge. He was first 
elected County Judge of Muskogee County in 1916, and successively re- 
elected in 1918 and 1920. In 1922 he was elected to the District Bench, and 
was re-elected successively until 1942 when he voluntarily retired from 
the bench over the urgent requests of many of his friends who wished 
him to continue in office." 

A number of the members of the bar addressed the meeting on the 
Resolutions, speaking in terms not only of admiration but of love and 
affection for their departed friend. 

By Benj. Martin 

Muskogee, Oklahoma 



NAPOLEON D. BLACKSTONE 
1881-1944 

Napoleon D. (Nip) Blackstone was born in Webbers Falls, Indian Ter- 
ritory, now Muskogee County, Oklahoma, on October 28, 1881, and died at 
San Angelo, Texas on March 24, 1944. He was the son of Robert B. and 
Sallie (Jennings) Blackstone, of pioneer families, members of the Chero- 
kee Tribe of Indians, who appreciating the advantages of an education, 
availed themselves of the opportunity for their children to attend the 
schools which their tribal government afforded. At Tahlequah, which was 
the capital of the Cherokee Nation, the Cherokees had erected two hand- 
some and commodious brick buildings, one as a male seminary and the 
other as a female seminary. Nip Blackstone attended the male seminary. 

At an early age, he engaged quite extensively in the cattle business in 
Indian Territory, and desiring a greater outlet for his operations, he moved 
to San Angelo, where he and his brother-in-law, Lon Slaughter, became 
among the largest ranchers in that part of the State of Texas. 

In addition to his large ranch and cattle holdings in Texas, Nip Black- 
stone had other extensive interests, not only in Texas but in Muskogee 
County, whence he had removed. 

He was a man of outstanding character and integrity. The San Angelo 
Standard Times of March 26, 1944 stated: — 

"Named for a warrior, Napoleon Blackstone was a man of peace. Raised 
in a wild section of Oklahoma, coming to Texas when many people con- 
sidered sidearms good things to have handy, he came as near bearing out 
the admonition given the shepherds of Galilee 'peace on earth, good will 
toward men', as any one who ever lived in this section, his friends agreed 
yesterday, as they discussed his untimely passing." 

Even the best of men have a pet peeve, but if there was an unpro- 
tected opening in his armor of good will he never exposed it. He thought 




NAPOLEON B. BLACKSTONE 




ISER H. NAKDIMEN 



Necrologies 



367 



no evil and spoke no evil. In his cynical age of debunking he clung to 
the bright side, and never saw a cloud he did not know had a silver lining. 

W. D. Holcombe, a former mayor of San Angelo, Texas, said: — "He 
was the best man I ever saw. He helped a lot of people that will never 
know anything about it. He'll be missed by many West Texans." 

He was united in marriage with Miss Gillian Mabson of San Angelo, 
Texas, who survives him. They have one daughter, Mary. He was interred 
at San Angelo. 

By Benj. Martin 

Muskogee, Oklahoma 



ISER H. NAKDIMEN 
1869-1943 

The life story of Iser H. Nakdimen has a real place in the history of 
Oklahoma and is like that of many an outstanding citizen in America who 
through his own character and enterprise rose from obscurity to preemi- 
nence. It is the story of one who came to America from a foreign land as 
a lad, unknown and in want;' who courageously overcoming every obstacle 
settled in this region of the Southwest and finally attained the pinnacle of 
success in the financial world. 

Iser H. Nakdimen was born in Grodno, Russia, on September 15, 1869. 
His parents were Abraham and Goldie Nakdimen, a prominent and wealthy 
family living near Grodno that had long counted among its members busi- 
ness men, tanners, farmers, cattlemen, merchants, doctors, and lawyers. 
Up to the age of fourteen years, the son, Iser, was instructed through pri- 
vate tutors in Vienna, Austria, Hamburg, Germany, and Amsterdam, Hol- 
land. He could speak five languages. When he was fourteen and a half 
years old, he arrived in New York City with fourteen cents in his pocket. 
From that time, he was given no funds by anyone and made his own way 
in the world. 

On his arrival in New York, he did odd jobs including cutting ice on 
the Hudson River as a day laborer. He worked in a brick yard, peddled 
tinware, and served as a husksterer. He later moved to Chicago where he 
clerked in a store and, through saving money, became a member of the 
Chicago Board of Trade at the age of twenty-two. 

In 1894, he came south, living at different times at Muldrow, Indian 
Territory, and at Port Smith, Arkansas, where he made his home during 
his last years though he continued to own wide business interests in Okla- 
homa. He first clerked in a store at Fort Smith, then in a mercantile 
store at Muldrow. Returning to Fort Smith, he set up an overall manu- 
facture. Later he went back to Muldrow, in present Sequoyah County, 
Oklahoma, and opened the first bank there. i 

On January 1, 1899, Mr. Nakdimen was united in marriage with Celia 
Spiro,2 born September 11, 1873, and died February 2, 1942. Mr. Nakdimen 
died at Fort Smith, Arkansas, on April 19, 1943. Interment was in the 
Jewish cemetery of that City. The surviving members of his family are 

1 Questionnaire on Biography of Members of the Oklahoma Historical Society 
and letter from H. S. Nakdimen, Fort Smith, Arkansas. 

2 The maiden name of Celia Spiro Nakdimen is that of the town of Spiro, Le 
Flore County, which was named for her. The ancient Indian mound in the vicinity 
of the town, in which wonderful artifacts and ornaments of a prehistoric people 
were discovered through excavations made under the direction of the University 
of Oklahoma, is known throughout the archeological field as the "Spiro Mound." 



368 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



a daughter, Pauline Nakdimen Mendel, born October 21, 1899, now living 
at Marott Apartment Hotel, Indianapolis, Indiana; a son, Hiram Spire 
Nakdimen, born November 12, 1901, who is now President of The City Na- 
tional Bank, Fort Smith, Arkansas; and a granddaughter, Joann Cecile Men- 
del Altman, born April 11, 1921, now living at 4020 Red Bud Avenue, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 

The subject of this sketch was a Mason (32nd degree) and a member 
of a number of organizations including Woodmen of the World, Odd Fel- 
lows, Knights of Pythias, Eagles, and B'nai B'rith. He was President of 
The City National Bank of Fort Smith and, also, President and owner of 
the Oklahoma-Arkansas Telephone Company, Poteau, Oklahoma, at the 
time of his death. 

After founding the first Bank at Muldrow, Mr. Nakdimen through the 
years founded many banks in Eastern Oklahoma and Western Arkansas, 
sixteen of which were in Oklahoma. At one time, he headed and owned 
the following banks in this state: Sallisaw State Bank, Sallisaw; First 
National Bank, Muldrow; Bank of Sectuoyah, Muldrow; Sallisaw Bank .and 
Trust Company, Sallisaw; Bank of Vian, Vian; Farmers Bank, Gore; Farm- 
ers Bank, Fort Gibson; Farmers National Bank, Fort Gibson; Bank of 
Braggs, Braggs; First National Bank, Eufaula. In addition to heading 
The City National Bank at Fort Smith, he owned three other banks in 
Arkansas; Citizens National Bank, Greenwood; First National Bank, Mans- 
field; and First National Bank, Hartford. 

As a leader in civic enterprises of his community, he was active in 
promoting in many private business enterprises, and lent his counsel and 
support to retail stores and manufactures. A friend once wrote this about 
Mr. Nakdimen: 3 "There is none of that chilling pride air about him which 
unfortunately characterizes many men of wealth and large affairs. He is 
frank and outspoken and the poorest working man looks good to him. He 
has helped many and many a struggling farmer and business man out of a 
tight place, and his deeds of kindness are scattered like threads of gold in 
the woof and warp of his life." 

During the panic of 1907, when the banks throughout the country were 
practically out of business for lack of cash, Mr. Nakdimen was the only 
banker in this region and in almost the whole south who advertised in 
the newspapers that he would lend money on cotton to farmers and would 
pay out cash in making the loans. Up into thousands of bales were stored 
in warehouses as a result of this, held for the farmers, Mr. Nakdimen in- 
ducing them not to sell at six or seven cents a pound. After a few months, 
the cotton was sold at fifteen cents a pound to the advantage of those who 
had obtained their loans from him. 

In 1911, he advocated and worked for a National Guaranty Law for 
Banks, the forerunner of the present Deposit Insurance. He spoke on this 
subject at the Oklahoma State Bankers convention in Oklahoma City in 
the same year. 

It was in this year, also, that Mr. Nakdimen came to the rescue of the 
State of Oklahoma and purchased its $1,750,000 building bonds issued for 
completion of public buildings and the Eastern Oklahoma Hospital at 
Vinita. For a year and a half prior to this, the State had been unable to 
find a buyer for these bonds. Within forty-eight hours after Mr. Nakdi- 
men's purchase, it was in a position to complete its public works. This 



^Fort Smith Tribune, Special Edition, Twenty-fifth Anniversary of The City 
was a momentous occasion for the new State, Governor Lee Cruce, public 
National Bank of Fort Smith, Arkansas, October 13, 1939. 



Necrologies 



369 



officials, and newspaper men throughout Oklahoma commending Mr. Nak- 
dimen for his public spirit. 

Known for his interest in all matters pertaining to the good of his 
community, state and nation, his writings and talks found space unsolic- 
ited in banking and telephone journals and in newspapers generally through- 
out the country. He himself was owner of the following newspapers in 
Oklahoma: Vinita Daily Journal and Vinita Leader, Vinita; Democrat American 
and Sequoyah County Democrat, Sallisaw; LeFlore County Sun, Poteau; Stigler 
News Sentinel, Stigler; Adair County Democrat, Stilwell; Cherokee County Demo- 
crat, Tahlequah. 

When a branch of the League to Enforce Peace was organized and a 
call for a convention was issued to be held in Oklahoma City, on March 
29, 1917, Governor Robert L. Williams honored Mr. Nakdimen with appoint- 
ment as a member to represent the State in this world-wide, non-political, 
and non-sectarian movement. * He was held in honor and respect by Gov- 
ernor William H. Murray who appointed him honorary colonel on the 
Governor's staff. At this time, when visiting the State Capitol, Mr. Nakdi- 
men was introduced from the floor of the House by Representative Benjamin 
Martin, from Muskogee County, and Speaker Carlton Weaver interrupted 
the session to extend a public welcome, saying in part: "Mr. Nakdimen is 
the one man who is known for the helping hand he has given in an un- 
selfish way to many a legislator as well as the counties and towns of 
Eastern Oklahoma." 

A glimpse of Mr. Nakdimen's deeply religious spirit and philosophy of 
life are found in an extract from his speech to a convention of teachers 
of Sequoyah and Adair counties some years ago: 

"In order to be a good man or woman, always remember there is a 
God above us and a Sabbath to be observed. If you want to be satisfied 
always look upon the man who is below you instead of above you and who 
has less than you have, and when you do, you will always be satisfied." 

In Oklahoma history, Iser H. Nakdimen has been recorded a public 
spirited citizen and a broad humanitarian. Among his friends, he is re- 
membered for his geniality, diligence, and rectitude, and among the mem- 
bers of his family, as a loving husband and father. 

By Muriel H. Wright 

Oklahoma City 



4 Original certificate of Honorary Appointment by the Governor of the State 
of Oklahoma, signed at Oklahoma City on March 13, 1917, by R. L. Williams, 
Governor, and J. L. Lyon, Secretary of State. 



370 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



MINUTES OF THE MEETING OF THE BOARD 
OF DIRECTORS OF THE OKLAHOMA 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
July 24, 1944 

The quarterly meeting of the Board of Directors of the Oklahoma His- 
torical Society convened in the Historical Building, Oklahoma City, Okla- 
homa, July 24, 1944, with Judge Thomas H. Doyle, President Emeritus, 
presiding in the absence of the President, Judge Robert L. Williams, who 
expected to be present but had not arrived from Durant. 

The roll was called by the Secretary and showed the following mem- 
bers present: Judge Thomas H. Doyle, Judge Robert A. Hefner, Mrs. Frank 
Korn, Hon. R. M. Mountcastle, Mr. H. L. Muldrow, Judge Baxter Taylor, 
Mrs. John R. Williams and James W. Moffitt, the Secretary. 

The Secretary read the excuses of the absentee members and on motion, 
which was seconded and unanimously carried, the members of the Board 
were excused on account of being unavoidably detained. 

The Chair entertained a motion to recess the meeting until some hour 
after noon. 

Mrs. Korn made the motion that the meeting be adjourned to reconvene 
at 1:30 P.M., at which time the President, Judge R. L. Williams, was ex- 
pected to be present. The motion was seconded by Mrs. John R. Williams 
and unanimously carried. 

The meeting stood adjourned to reconvene subject to call by the Presi- 
dent at 1:30 P.M. 

Judge Thomas H. Doyle, President 
Emeritus, presiding. 

James W. Moffitt, 
Secretary 



MINUTES OF THE MEETING OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS 
OF THE OKLAHOMA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
July 24, 1944 

The meeting of the Board of Directors of the Oklahoma Historical So- 
ciety reconvened in the Historical Building, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, at 
1:30 P.M., July 24, 1944, with Judge Robert L. Williams, President, pre- 
siding, with the following members present: Judge Thomas H. Doyle, 
Mrs. Frank Korn, Hon. R. M. Mountcastle, Mr. H. L. Muldrow, Judge Baxter 
Taylor, Mrs. John R. Williams and James W. Moffitt, the Secretary. Judge 
Robert A. Hefner who was present at the morning session had asked to be 
excused on account of an afternoon engagement. 

Judge Thomas H. Doyle read the resignation of Mrs. Laura M. Messen- 
baugh, Custodian of the Newspaper Department of the Historical Society, 
and moved that it be accepted as of September 1, 1944. Mrs. John R. Wil- 
liams seconded the motion which carried by a unanimous vote. 

Mrs. Edith Mitchell, Cataloguer in the Library, was nominated to fill 
the vacancy in the Newspaper Department, beginning September 1, 1944. 
Upon a vote by the Board she was elected unanimously to the position of 
Custodian of the Newspaper Department of the Historical Society. 



Minutes 



371 



A motion was made that the matter of filling the vacancy of the Cata- 
loguer in the Library be postponed until another meeting of the Board. 
The motion was seconded and unanimously carried. 

Judge Thomas H. Doyle moved that a vote of thanks be given Mrs. 
Laura M. Messenbaugh for her long and faithful service in the Newspaper 
Department. The motion was seconded and unanimously carried. 

Mr. H. L. Muldrow advised the Board that Mr. T. Jack Foster, of Nor- 
man, had presented to the Society a large Rose Rock to be placed on ex- 
hibit with the one presented recently by Mr. Clyde Pickard. 

Mrs. Korn moved that it be accepted with appreciation and the Secre- 
tary be directed to thank the donor for this gift. The motion was seconded 
and unanimously carried. 

Mr. Muldrow made the motion that Mr. Boss Neff, President of the Pan- 
handle Historical Society and a long time member of the State Society, 
be given an honorary life membership in the State Historical Society. The 
motion was seconded and unanimously carried. 

On motion, seconded and carried, the President was authorized to ap- 
point a committee to make inquiries with reference to the salvage from 
the U.S.S. OKLAHOMA, sunk in the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 
7, 1941; if there is any salvage, the committee should ascertain how it 
could be acquired by the Oklahoma Historical Society, an agency of the 
State. 

The following gifts were presented to the Historical Society: 

The Chickasaw Enterprise (Paul's Valley), January 15, 1887, volume I, 
number 1, presented by Mrs. Hugh Hart, Pauls Valley; Mistletoe Leaves 
(Kingfisher), volume I, numbers 1 and 2, Circular, Oklahoma Historical So- 
ciety (Kingfisher), May 29, 1893, number 1, presented by Frank A. Root, 
Topeka, Kansas; Collections of newspaper clippings, presented by J. V. 
McClintic, Washington City and George J. Remsburg, Porterville, California; 
Collection of business records of the Oklahoma City Ditch and Water Power 
Company, IS'Sl-igil, presented by Frank Janovy and Fred Ptak, Oklahoma 
City; the personal flag of a Japanese marine officer and other items, pre- 
sented by Commander J. E. Kirkpatrick; an eagle feather fan used by 
White Hair, former chief of the Osage Indians, presented by Grace W. Dun- 
can; a copper luster pitcher, presented by Lena Little Rice; an Anti-Air- 
craft Command insignia, presented by Ralph Hudson, State Librarian, now 
stationed at Foi't Sill; a portrait of former Governor Charles N. Haskell, 
presented by C. N. Greenman, Oklahoma City; a photograph of former 
Governor Leon C. Phillips, presented by Major Charles D. Keller, Adjut- 
ant General's Headquarters, Oklahoma City; a photograph of Mrs. J. R. 
Phelan, Oklahoma City, designer of the Oklahoma State quilt, presented 
by Mrs. Phelan; a "Pine Burr" quilt, presented by Mrs. W. F. Tubbs; Some 
Events of My Childhood (1943), by Edith Hubbard Brainerd; Burning of Sche- 
nectady (Syracuse, 1940), compiled by Rev. W. N. P. Daily, Pottersville, 
N. Y., presented by him; a collection of Publications and volumes of military 
history from the Office of the Adjutant General of Oklahoma, presented 
by Major Charles D. Keller, Oklahoma City; Proceedings of the Eastern 
Star, presented by Mrs. Fair Boyett, Oklahoma City. The Society has also 
received the State Manual from each of the following states : Maryland, South 
Carolina, California, ' Oregon, Nevada, Vermont, Virginia, North Carolina, 
Rhode Island, Iowa, Colorado, Michigan, South Dakota, New Hampshire, 
Idaho, Delaware, Wyoming, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Florida, New Mex- 
ico, Mississippi, Utah, Indiana, Tennessee, Minnesota, Ohio, Washington, 
New York, Illinois, and Missouri. 



372 



Chronicles of Oklahoma 



Mrs. Korn made the motion that these gifts be accepted and a vote of 
thanks extended to the donors. The motion was seconded and unanimously 
carried. 

The Secretary presented the following list of applicants for member- 
ship: 

LIFE: Ray E. Basore, Oklahoma City; Eugene S. Briggs, Enid; George 
L. Cross, Norman; Ira Eppler, Seattle, Washington; Roy F. Fischer, Nor- 
man; J. N. Kagey, Wyandotte; H. S. Nakdimen, Fort Smith, Arkansas; 
Mrs. J. H. McBirney, Tulsa. 

ANNUAL: Rev. John R. Abernathy, Oklahoma City; Leslie L. Allen, 
Oklahoma City; S. G. Ambrister, Norman; R. H. Amrein, Oklahoma City; 

E. B. Anderson, Waurika; Mrs. Joe Argo, Oklahoma City; Edward D. Avery, 
Tulsa; Zeke J. Bahlman, Beaumont, Texas; James E. Barbour, Norman; 
John W. Barbour, Norman; D. L. Barnes, Norman; John D. Barnhill, Okla- 
homa City; T. C. Barrowman, Norman; Mrs. Minnie Bettis, Oklahoma City; 
Roberta Frances Biles, Lawton; Susie Ellen Blockcolski, Enid; R. M. Broach, 
Tulsa; Dr. Stratton D. Brooks, Kansas City, Missouri; Mrs. Joe E. Brown, 
Dustin; Sidney G. Bryan, Antlers; John A. Buckles, Norman; H. A. Butler, 
Allen; Elmer Capshaw, Norman; E. M. Carter, Tulsa; Ralph W. Casey, 
Tonkawa; Clifford Clark, Renfrow; Mrs. Clarice Clayton, Oklahoma City; 
Preslie B. Cole, Hugo; O. Lonzo Conner, Tulsa; Glenn C. Couch, Norman; 
Mrs. Charlcie Cox, Oklahoma City; J. R. DeBerry, Norman; Dr. Charles E. 
Decker, Norman; Miss Lucile Dora, Norman; Mrs. Daisy Humphry Doss, 
Hugo; T. R. Douglass, Tulsa; J. Gard Duncan, Wapanucka; Mrs. Maude M. 
DuPriest, Claremore; James A. Durham, Norman; Mrs. Betty Ensworth, 
Oklahoma City; R. J. Evans, Hartshorne; Charles H. Everett, Ardmore; 
R. A. Farmer, Grove; Zac Farmer, Muskogee; Harold L. Farris, Bunker 
Hill, Kansas; Mrs. Scott Williams Fisher, Oklahoma City; Mrs. Dora Fisk, 
Gushing; Mrs. Hazel T. Fleet, Ada; Albert L. Ford, Denton, Texas; Mrs. 
Eva L. Ford, Oklahoma City; E. C. Freeman, Muskogee; R. A. Geist, Nor- 
man; Wilson C. Gibson, Norman; Thomas P. Gilmer, Okmulgee; Sid M. 
Goldman, McAlester; Sam Gordon, Norman; Mrs. Mary Louise Gowen, Ok- 
lahoma City; Dr. H. Roy Gravelle, Norman; Sj'lvester Grim, Norman; Ray 

F. Groves, Norman; William E. Hailey, McAlester; Mrs. Ennen Reeves Hall, 
Pauls Valley; Judge William S. Hall, Stigler; Mrs. Charles Hardy, Clare- 
more; Nelse Harrington, Norman; Luther Harrison, Oklahoma City; Prof. 
J. M. Hernandez, Norman; Dr. John G. Hervey, Norman; Harry C. Hewett, 
Jr., Durant; J. B. Hoge, Nowata; Paxton Howard, Tulsa; Judge Albert C. 
Hunt, Oklahoma City; William Hutchinson, Ardmore; Miss Ima James, 
Norman; Mrs. Annie M. Jones, Alva; Mrs. Martha B. Kanatzar, Oklahoma 
City; Miss Nona May Kerr, Norman; Mrs. O. C. King, Duncan; Emma G. 
Kiper, Oklahoma City; J. A. Kirby, Porterville, California; Mrs. E. B. Kirks, 
Henryetta; Dr. L. C. Kuyrkendall, McAlester; W. I. Lahue, Muskogee; 
Lt. Col. Jess Larson, Lawton; John T. Liebrand, McAlester; Lorenzo H. Love, 
Ardmore; Emma B. McCann, Norman; David R. McConahy, Tulsa; R. M. 
McCool, Norman; Dorothea Ann McDonnell, Donora, Pennsylvania; Don 
McMasters, Sapulpa; Patricia Mason, Oscar; Dr. Clinton M. Maupin, Wau- 
rika; John L. Miller, Enid; Dr. William C. Mitchener, Okmulgee; Homer 
R. Mitchell, Leedey; L. E. Mitchell, Tulsa; R. B. Mitchell, Wilburton; Fred 
C. Moehle, Enid; A. M. Muldrow, Pauls Valley; Hal L. Muldrow, Jr., Nor- 
man; Mrs. Lura G. Murphy, Oklahoma City; Dr. Rupert Naney, Oklahoma 
City; Mrs. Jack Neal, Oklahoma City; Mrs. Ethel Nelson, Oklahoma City; 
Jerry B. Newby, Oklahoma City; Mrs. Bessie Newman, Oklahoma City; 
Lucile R. Nicholson, Oklahoma City; E. E. dinger, Oklahoma City; Howard 
Parker, Oklahoma City; Lee F. Parks, Muskogee; William G. Phillips, 
Norman; Winford C. Pickard, Norman; Thomas F. Pierce, Oklahoma City; 
Dr. Andrew Potter, Oklahoma City; William H. Powell, Guthrie; Felix G. 
(Dick) Pratt, Ardmore; Mrs. J. V. Purcell, Oklahoma City; B. F. Quick- 



Minutes 



373 



sail, Beaumont, Texas; Edward C. Reed, Enid; Alvin R. Reeves, McAlester; 
Carl E. Reistle, Jr., Houston, Texas; J. W. Reddick, Broken Bow; Clifton 
L. Richards, Tulsa; Howard E. Richardson, McAlester; A. B. Ringland, 
McAlester; C. P. Rosenberger, Tulsa; M. S. Runyan, Oklahoma City; J. H. 
Sawyer, McAlester; Mrs. Mona Shackelford, Oklahoma City; Mrs. Gordon 
P. Shelton, Norman; Lucy B. Sitton, Wewoka; Lieut. Clyde G. Smallwood, 
Norman; Mrs. Fannie Castle Smith, Tulsa; R. O. Smith, Jr., Norman; Mrs. 
S. B. Spradlin, Norman; Anna Mae Spriggs, Tulsa; Kelly Spring, Redden; 
Mrs. Stella Madge Stephens, Oklahoma City; Cpl. LeRoy E. Stewart, Nor- 
man; Ruth M. Strode, Stillwater; Pierre Tartoue, Oklahoma City; Paul 
Scott Taylor, McAlester; Lt. Col. Varley H. Taylor, Tulsa; Morris Tene- 
baum, Norman; E. G. Thomas, Tulsa; John P. Toberman, Norman; I. R. 
Tolbert, Pauls Valley; Dr. C. H. H. Walker, Beaumont, Texas; Dr. Arthur 
W. White, Oklahoma City; Mrs .David White, Antlers; Mrs. D. Wilkerson, 
Oklahoma City; Mrs. Lillian Womack, Los Angeles, California; Robert C. 
Yadon, Tulsa; G. B. Young, Tulsa; R. R. Zimmerman, Washington, D. C. 

Mrs. John R. Williams made the motion that each be elected and re- 
ceived as members of the Society in the class as indicated in the list. The 
motion was seconded and unanimously carried. 

A motion was made by Mr. Muldrow that the regular quarterly meeting 
of the Board of Directors for July 27, 1944, be dispensed with and this 
meeting of July 24 be substituted therefor. The motion was seconded by 
Judge Taylor and carried unanimously. 

Upon motion, the meeting stood adjourned subject to the call of the 
President. 

Robert L. Williams, 

President, presiding 

James W. Moffitt, 
Secretary 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 




3 1262 07696 485 6 

UD 

' ■ n 

THE OKLAHOMA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

The Oklahoma Historical Society was organized by a 
group of Oklahoma Territory newspaper men interested 
in the history of Oklahoma who assembled in Kingfisher, 
May 26, 1893. 

The major objective of the Society involves the pro- 
motion of interest and research in Oklahoma history, the 
collection and preservation of the State's historical records, 
pictures, and relics. The Society also seeks the co-operation 
of all citizens of Oklahoma in gathering these materials. 

The Chronicles of Oklahoma, published quarterly by 
the Society in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, is dis- 
tributed free to its members. Each issue contains scholarly 
articles as well as those of popular interest, together with 
book reviews, historical notes, etc. Such contributions will 
be considered for publication by the editors and the Publi- 
cation Committee. 

Membership in the Oklahoma Historical Society is 
open to everyone interested. The quarterly is designed for 
college and university professors, for those engaged in re- 
search in Oklahoma and Indian history, for high school 
history teachers, for others interested in the State's history, 
and for librarians. The annual dues are $1.00 and include 
a subscription to The Chronicles of Oklahoma. A free 
sample copy will be sent upon request. Life membership 
may be secured upon the payment of $25.00. All dues and 
correspondence relating thereto should be sent direct to 
the Secretary, Oklahoma Historical Society, Historical So- 
ciety Building, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. 




\